“Incunabula,” from the Latin for “swaddling clothes,” are the earliest books printed in the West, specifically those dated before 1501.
The first documented instance of women actually employed in printing comes from a manuscript kept at the Convent of San Jacopo di Ripoli in Florence.
Perhaps because their printing works was supervised by two male friars, the women’s contributions have been little noted until recently.
In 1999 the convent’s Diario, a type of account book and daily log, was published with a commentary and transcription by Melissa Conway.
As is evident in the colophon shown here, the nuns gave themselves no credit in the works they printed.
This example, The Conspiracy of Cataline by the Roman historian Sallust (86-34 B.C.), shows that these women were skillful and accurate — although not artful — compositors.
Their work is nevertheless of great importance to the history of women, as are their contributions to scholarship, particularly their magnum opus — and the last imprint of San Jacopo di Ripoli — the first complete printed edition of the works of Plato, published in 1484.
Crispi Salustii De coniuratione Catilinae liber incipit, printed by the Nuns of San Jacopo di Ripoli
Sometimes, it just doesn’t work out. The spark goes, the flame flickers, the fire dies – whichever combustible cliche you favour, love has a regrettable habit of fizzling out.
But for everyone bar the wealthiest men in Victorian Britain, divorce was out of the question.
That may explain, if not excuse, why a navvy in Stacksteads, Lancashire who’d grown tired of married life, reverted to an old English custom.
He offered up his wife for auction to the highest bidder, staging the sale – as an additional insult – at the home they’d shared together.
“Despite Solomon’s testimony as to a woman being more precious than rubies, and notwithstanding that the spectators were numerous, the highest offer was only 4d,” said the Sheffield and Rotherham Independent in 1879.
“The seller wanted to ‘throw in’ three children, but the buyer objected, and the bairns were left on hand.
The wife, however, went joyfully to the home of her new owner, and seemed to be quite glad to get away from her late liege lord as he was to part with her.”
Ada Byron was the daughter of a brief marriage between the Romantic poet Lord Byron and Anne Isabelle Milbanke, who separated from Byron just a month after Ada was born.
Four months later, Byron left England forever. Ada never met her father (who died in Greece in 1823) and was raised by her mother, Lady Byron.
Her life was an apotheosis of struggle between emotion and reason, subjectivism and objectivism, poetics and mathematics, ill health and bursts of energy.
Lady Byron wished her daughter to be unlike her poetical father, and she saw to it that Ada received tutoring in mathematics and music, as disciplines to counter dangerous poetic tendencies. But Ada’s complex inheritance became apparent as early as 1828, when she produced the design for a flying machine.
It was mathematics that gave her life its wings. Lady Byron and Ada moved in an elite London society, one in which gentlemen not members of the clergy or occupied with politics or the affairs of a regiment were quite likely to spend their time and fortunes pursuing botany, geology, or astronomy.
In the early nineteenth century there were no “professional” scientists (indeed, the word “scientist” was only coined by William Whewell in 1836)–but the participation of noblewomen in intellectual pursuits was not widely encouraged.
One of the gentlemanly scientists of the era was to become Ada’s lifelong friend. Charles Babbage, (pictured above) Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge, was known as the inventor of the Difference Engine, an elaborate calculating machine that operated by the method of finite differences.
Ada met Babbage in 1833, when she was just 17, and they began a voluminous correspondence on the topics of mathematics, logic, and ultimately all subjects.
In 1835, Ada married William King, ten years her senior, and when King inherited a noble title in 1838, they became the Earl and Countess of Lovelace. Ada had three children. The family and its fortunes were very much directed by Lady Byron, whose domineering was rarely opposed by King.
Babbage had made plans in 1834 for a new kind of calculating machine (although the Difference Engine was not finished), an Analytical Engine. His Parliamentary sponsors refused to support a second machine with the first unfinished, but Babbage found sympathy for his new project abroad.
In 1842, an Italian mathematician, Louis Menebrea, published a memoir in French on the subject of the Analytical Engine (pictured above). Babbage enlisted Ada as translator for the memoir, and during a nine-month period in 1842-43, she worked feverishly on the article and a set of Notes she appended to it.
These are the source of her enduring fame. Ada called herself “an Analyst (and Metaphysician),” and the combination was put to use in the Notes. She understood the plans for the device as well as Babbage but was better at articulating its promise. She rightly saw it as what we would call a general-purpose computer.
It was suited for “developing and tabulating any function whatever. . . the engine [is] the material expression of any indefinite function of any degree of generality and complexity.” Her Notes anticipate future developments, including computer-generated music.
Ada died of cancer in 1852, at the age of 37, and was buried beside the father she never knew.
Her contributions to science were resurrected only recently, but many new biographies* attest to the fascination of Babbage’s “Enchantress of Numbers.”
Sydney in the 1880s was a town of pubs, oyster saloons and chophouses, with not much on offer for women.
This changed with the opening of the refined tearooms owned by Chinese immigrant Quong Tart.
The tearooms became a venue for the ‘ladies who lunched’, the social reformers and the waitresses who served them all.
The tearooms offered women of all classes a place to meet, socialise and collaborate on social causes such as the right to vote, temperance, the right for all children to attend a kindergarten and other women’s rights.