Soviet soldiers raising the red flag over the Reichstag, May 1945.
Photograph by Yevgeny Khaldei: The David King Collection at Tate
There is an unforgettable photograph of a Soviet soldier raising the red flag over the Reichstag near the end of this momentous exhibition.
The soldier crouches at a terrifying angle to hang his victorious banner above burned-out Berlin in May 1945.
It is a famous shot – the figure high among the parapets beneath a thunderous sky – and known to have been staged, like the marines hoisting the flag at Iwo Jima.
But in this context, one sees it completely new.
The photographer was Jewish. His father and sisters had been murdered by the Nazis.
His uncle made the flag by hand, the hammer and sickle glowing an immaculate white almost at the epicentre of this dark image.
And what has inspired Yevgeny Khaldei is not just the possibility of raising the figure high among the parapets, a worker on the same level as the imperial statues, but the dynamic geometries of Russian abstract art.
His scene is all triangles and heroic diagonals, harking back to El Lissitzky and Malevich.
The measures taken against German-Australians in South Australia
During the first World War, German settlers in South Australia and Australia became known as ‘the enemy within’ and extreme measures were put in place to deal with the threat felt by the predominately-British population.
The names of places that had been named by Germans were changed and German settlers were interned or deported and taken to work camps on Torrens Island.
Torrens Island detention camp was set up and held 400 german men during the First World War.
German established schools were closed, the German language was no longer taught in schools and German’s lost the right to vote.
Because of this German families began to change their name as a means of avoiding persecution and to prove their commitment to their new home.
If you were a German-born resident of Australia you had to register at your local police station, and most German-descendents were treated in similar ways.
German residents of Australia were inflicted with hostile attitudes even if they were naturalised and had sons and brothers fighting for the Australian Infantry Force.
Australian authoritities would target German residents with unjustified searches, survelliance and arrest.
During the war 4500 Germans in Australia were interned- 700 were naturalised and 70 were Australian born.