An Early Fake Photo by Roger Fenton.

Orientalist Study, 1858.
The two men pictured are in fact white Europeans, posing in a London studio.
Photograph by Roger Fenton (English, 1819–1869)/Featured at the Clark Art Institute
On display at the “Photography and Discovery” exhibit at the Clark Art Institute in Williamstown, Mass., is a photo of two men dressed in traditional Arab garb in a carpeted room (above).
They’re smoking a pipe. It’s a beautiful photo, but it’s not from the Middle East.
It was shot in a studio in London by photographer Roger Fenton. The men in the photo are white Europeans, dressed up and posing as Arabs.
The whole thing is staged — as are several of the exhibit’s images. The photos were taken in the 19th and early 20th centuries, roughly the first 75 years of photography.
This was also a time of rising European colonial power.
European empires needed justification for subjugating vast swaths of earth, and photography could frame the Arab and Asian world in a way that supported the empire, says Ali Behdad, a professor of literature at UCLA and author of Camera Orientalis: Reflections on Photography of the Middle East.
Source: Long Before There Was ‘Fake News,’ There Were ‘Fake Photos’ : Goats and Soda : NPR

The Oxford University Press.

OxfordUniversityPressImage: Oxford University Press
Oxford’s Chancellor Archbishop William Laud consolidated the legal status of the university’s printing in the 1630s.
Laud envisaged a unified Press of world standing. Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, and benefit from its proceeds.
To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers’ Company and the King’s Printer, and obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it.
These were brought together in Oxford’s “Great Charter” in 1636, which gave the university the right to print “all manner of books.”
Laud also obtained the “privilege” from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford.  This “privilege” created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although initially it was held in abeyance.
The Stationers’ Company was deeply alarmed by the threat to its trade, and lost little time in establishing a “Covenant of Forbearance” with Oxford.
Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud also made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of “Architypographus”: an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading.
The post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived (mostly as a sinecure) in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford’s Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales, accounting, and the hiring and firing of print shop staff.
Laud’s plans, however, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, and many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons.
Some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time – notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew – but no university press on Laud’s model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
johnfell
It was finally established by the Vice-Chancellor John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, and Secretary to the Delegates.
Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, and was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew all printers working for the university onto one set of premises.
This business was set up in the cellars of the new Sheldonian Theatre, where Fell installed printing presses in 1668, making it the university’s first central print shop.
A type foundry was added when Fell acquired a large stock of typographical punches and matrices from the Dutch Republic – the so-called “Fell Types”. He also induced two Dutch typefounders, Harman Harmanz and Peter de Walpergen, to work in Oxford for the Press.
Finally, defying the Stationers’ demands, Fell personally leased the right to print from the university in 1672, in partnership with Thomas Yate, Principal of Brasenose, and Sir Leoline Jenkins, Principal of Jesus College.
Read on via Oxford University Press – Wikipedia

The Knife Angel, Middlesborough town centre.

Middlesbrough, England
The Knife Angel is installed in the town’s Centre Square.
The 8m tall sculpture will stand for four weeks as a reminder of the devastation caused by knife crime.
It was created by The British Ironwork Centre and is made from more than 100,000 discarded knives and weapons confiscated by police across the country..
Image Credit: Photograph by Ian Forsyth/Getty Images
Source: The 20 photographs of the week | Art and design | The Guardian

Bignor Roman Villa, West Sussex.

Photo: Wikimedia Commons.
Location
The villa is situated just north of the South Downs close to Stane Street, about 9 miles north-east of Chichester (the Roman city of Noviomagus Reginorum) and the nearby and much larger Fishbourne Roman Palace.
It is on the south-facing slope of a ridge of greensand which provided better conditions for agriculture than the nearby chalk; this fact and its proximity to Roman Chichester meant that the owners were able to become wealthy from farming.
History and structure
The earliest structural remains are of a simple timber farm structure dating to around 190 AD. A four-roomed stone building was built in the middle of the 3rd century AD, and this was extended between c.240 and 290 AD by the addition of a few new rooms, a hypocaust, and a portico that faced east towards Stane Street.
This building became the western wing when north and south wings were added at the turn of the fourth century. In its final form, the villa consisted of some sixty-five rooms surrounding a courtyard, with a number of outlying farm buildings.
The latest phase of building involved additions to the north wing between c.300 and 350 AD, and it is here that most of the fine mosaics are located.
The later history of the villa is not well known, but it appears to have gradually declined in status, rather than suffering a catastrophic fate, such as the fire that destroyed most of Fishbourne Palace.
Discovery and excavations
George Tupper, a farmer, discovered the villa in 1811 when his plough hit a large stone. It was almost entirely excavated by John Hawkins who lived at nearby Bignor Park, and the antiquary, Samuel Lysons. Opened to the public in 1814, it rapidly became a tourist attraction, with nearly a thousand entries in the visitors’ book in the first nine months.
By 1815 the remains of a substantial villa had been uncovered and protective buildings had been erected over several of the mosaics.
In 1818 Samuel Lysons read his third and final paper on the villa to the Society of Antiquaries. He had already published a series of engravings of the villa with the help of Richard Smirke and Charles Stothard.
These engravings together with his three papers and his and his brother’s correspondence with Hawkins form the only record of the original excavations. Excavations ceased in 1819 after Samuel Lysons’ death.
No further work was undertaken on the site until 1925 when S. E. Winbolt did some minor work. Between 1956 and 1962 Sheppard Frere re-excavated parts of the villa in the first attempt to determine its chronology.
Since then Thomas Tupper, the direct descendent of the discoverer, whose family still owns the site, has undertaken further excavations: with Margaret Rule in the 1970s, and David Rudling in the 1980s.
Source: Bignor Roman Villa – Wikipedia