The Asurini do Tocantins Man.

df0ff9a3-a4fd-4649-aa0b-ba0764836103-1020x1020Par, Brazil The winning photograph – an Asurini do Tocantins man in the Tocantins river, Amazon.
In Brazil, there are about 240 tribes, totalling about 900,000 people and 0.4% of the population.
In the 514 years since Europeans arrived, tribal peoples have experienced genocide on a huge scale, and the theft of most of their land.
Photograph: Giordano Cipriani /Survival International
See more via Indigenous peoples – in pictures | Art and design | The Guardian.

Never Ending Lightning Storms in Venezuela.

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Photo Image IStock.
One of the most stunning weather phenomena in the world happens in northern Venezuela, where the Catatumbo River pours into Lake Maracaibo.
The area sees almost never-ending lightning storms.
In a new video, The Weather Channel’s “That’s Amazing” profiles a 21-year-old photographer who’s on a constant search to capture the Never-Ending Storm on film.
German storm chaser Jonas Piontek travels all over the world to capture the beauty of extreme weather, but he’s particularly interested in Venezuela’s Lake Maracaibo, which has the most lightning strikes of anywhere in the world—1.2 million a year.
He braves not just the intense, frequent lightning storms, but also hurricane-force winds to do so.
Click to see the video via Behind the Scenes With a Storm-Chasing Photographer | Mental Floss

Astronomer’s Paradise, Atacama Desert.

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The Milky Way and moon illuminate a lone tree in the Atacama Desert, Chile. (© Nicholas Buer/Corbis)
by Govert Schilling
The view through the eyepiece of the telescope is breathtaking. Like tiny diamonds on black velvet, countless sparkling stars float against a fathomless backdrop of empty space. “This is Omega Centauri,” says astronomer Alain Maury, who runs a popular tourist observatory just south of San Pedro de Atacama in northern Chile.
“To the naked eye, it looks like a fuzzy star, but the telescope reveals its true nature: a huge, globular cluster of hundreds of thousands of stars, almost 16,000 light-years away.” I could take in this mesmerizing view for hours, but Maury’s other telescopes are trained at yet more cosmic wonders.
There’s just too much to see.
Chile is an astronomer’s paradise.
The country is justly famous for its lush valleys and snowcapped volcanoes, but its most striking scenery may be overhead. It is home to some of the finest places on Earth to enjoy the beauty of the starry sky.
If there’s one country in the world that really deserves stellar status, it’s Chile.
If you live in a city, as I do, you probably don’t notice the night sky at all. Yes, the moon is visible at times, and maybe you can see a bright planet like Venus every now and then, but that’s about it.
Most people are hard-pressed to recognize even the most familiar constellations, and they’ve never seen the Milky Way.
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Read on via An Astronomer’s Paradise, Chile May Be the Best Place on Earth to Enjoy a Starry Sky | Travel | Smithsonian.

Chilean Devil Rays Dive Deep.

image1.jpg__800x600_q85_cropby Rachel Nuwer
Divers exploring warm waters around the world often encounter Chilean devil rays, gentle marine creatures that can grow up to ten feet long.
Scientists have just discovered that the rays harbor an impressive secret, however: they regularly undertake epic dives more than a mile deep.
These remarkable dives came as a surprise to researchers who reported the finding today in Nature Communications. In retrospect, they note, the rays’ physiology did hint at this ability.
Chilean devil rays possess a special organ called the retia mirabilia, which is also found in deep-diving species such as great white sharks. In those animals, the veined structure fills with warm blood that exchanges heat between vessel walls.
This helps to keep the marine creatures’ brain warm when they descend to freezing depths. But Chilean devil rays, researchers assumed, spent all of their time at the surface. Why would they need such a structure?
To solve the puzzle, an international team of marine biologists attached satellite tags to 15 Chilean devil rays captured off the northwest coast of Africa, near the Azores archipelago. The team monitored the rays’ movements for nine months and found that the animals were tremendously active.
They sometimes traversed up to 30 miles of ocean per day, with each covering a distance of up to 2,300 miles over the nine-month period. Even more impressive, however, was the rays’ diving abilities.
They regularly dove below 1,000 feet, with a maximum-recorded depth of 6,062 feet. This means that Chilean devil rays undertake some of the deepest dives ever recorded for marine animals, the team reports.
The journeys into the deep seem to be no sweat for the animals. One individual, for example, dove nearly 4,600 feet six days in a row, and overall, the rays spent more than five percent of their time in deep water.
The deep dives explain the presence of the previously enigmatic retia mirabilia, the team writes. At the depths recorded by the trackers, rays would encounter temperatures as chilly as 37˚F, so the extra flush of warm blood provided by that organ likely makes those dives possible. Additionally, the researchers found that the rays spend more time basking near the water’s warm surface both one hour before and one hour after a deep dive, implying that the animals are preparing for and recovering from encounters with the cold.
The rays aren’t undertaking these dives just for fun, of course. Based on the animals’ movement patterns—oftentimes a quick bee-line descent followed by a slower step-wise ascent—the researchers think they are probably foraging on fish or squid that live well below the surface.
The unexpected findings, the authors write, demonstrate “how little we know” about Chilean devil rays and the role they play in ocean ecosystems.
Given that these animals were recently listed as endangered (largely due to a growing demand for their gills by practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine), “this ignorance has significant conservation implications,” the team continues. As with any species, the more we know about them, the better equipped we will be for protecting them—and for knowing what we stand to lose should they disappear.
via Chilean Devil Rays Found to Be Among the Deepest-Diving Animals in the Ocean | Science | Smithsonian.