People in Norilsk, Russia go ice swimming even on days when the air feels like -40C – warming up in spots heated with steam from the power plant.
Norilsk is located above the Arctic Circle, east of the Yenisei River and south of the western Taymyr Peninsula. It has a permanent population of 175,000. With temporary inhabitants included, its population reaches 220,000. It is the world’s northernmost city and the second-largest city (after Murmansk) inside the Arctic Circle. Norilsk and Yakutsk are the only large cities in the continuous permafrost zone.
Norilsk was largely built by the forced labor of the Soviet-era Gulag system. The nickel deposits of Norilsk-Talnakh are the largest-known nickel-copper–palladium deposits in the world. The smelting of the nickel ore is directly responsible for severe pollution, which generally comes in the form of acid rain and smog.
Image Credit: Photograph by Elena Chernyshova
Sputnik 1 was the first artificial Earth satellite.
The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957, orbiting for three weeks before its batteries died, then silently for two more months before falling back into the atmosphere.
It was a 58 cm (23 in) diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennas to broadcast radio pulses.
Its radio signal was easily detectable even by radio amateurs, and the 65° inclination and duration of its orbit made its flight path cover virtually the entire inhabited Earth.
The satellite’s unanticipated success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis and triggered the Space Race, a part of the Cold War.
The launch was the beginning of a new era of political, military, technological, and scientific developments. Tracking and studying Sputnik 1 from Earth provided scientists with valuable information.
The density of the upper atmosphere could be deduced from its drag on the orbit, and the propagation of its radio signals gave data about the ionosphere.
Sputnik 1 was launched during the International Geophysical Year from Site No.1/5, at the 5th Tyuratam range, in Kazakh SSR (now known as the Baikonur Cosmodrome).
The satellite travelled at about 29,000 kilometres per hour (18,000 mph; 8,100 m/s), taking 96.2 minutes to complete each orbit.
It transmitted on 20.005 and 40.002 MHz, which were monitored by radio operators throughout the world. The signals continued for 21 days until the transmitter batteries ran out on 26 October 1957. Sputnik burned up on 4 January 1958 while reentering Earth’s atmosphere, after three months, 1440 completed orbits of the Earth, and a distance travelled of about 70 million km.
Source: Sputnik 1 – Wikipedia