On October 30, 1938, from the Mercury Theater in New York City, Orson Welles broadcasted a “modernized” radio play of H.G. Wells 1898 novel “War of the Worlds.”
For the last three quarters of the century, we’ve been told that this fictionalized CBS broadcast sent Americans into a panic; that citizens across the country did not realize that this was science-fiction (despite the fact that it was explicitly stated at the beginning and twice during the broadcast) and thought the USA was under attack from an invading Martian army.
Littered with realistic simulated news reports and “eyewitness accounts,” the hour long broadcast was innovative and an extremely entertaining way to present the story.
But the thing is, no such nation-wide panic actually occurred.
While there were certainly many exceptions, documented evidence indicates most who listened did know it was a dramatization and were completely aware that New Jersey was not being destroyed by visitors from space.
Further, the broadcast didn’t have very good ratings when it first aired; so even if everyone who listened had thought it was real, it wouldn’t have resulted in the level of mass hysteria commonly spoken of since.
I like Found Art categories: Found Absurdist, Found Surrealist, Found Cubist. This is a vision of art or design produced for something specifically not absurd or surreal or cubist, but once removed from their intended environment and definers, become the thing that was beyond their specified reach.
The examples are all from the mid-1950’s, their sources reprinted below:
Source: Shell Petroleum.
And this Spongebob-like existence under water, where you can have beaches and surf and fire and etc. at the bottom of the sea:
And of course the mom at the modern electric range feeling the birth of some sort of deep outer space astronautical space travel outer space rocket (though with no visible viewing windows which leads me to believe that perhaps no Outer Space Astronauts were on board):
Thomas Edison received US patent 180,857 for “Autographic Printing” on August 8, 1876.
The patent covered the electric pen, used for making the stencil, and the flatbed duplicating press. In 1880 Edison obtained a further patent, US 224,665: “Method of Preparing Autographic Stencils for Printing,” which covered the making of stencils using a file plate, a grooved metal plate on which the stencil was placed which perforated the stencil when written on with a blunt metal stylus.
The word “mimeograph” was first used by Albert Blake Dick when he licensed Edison’s patents in 1887.
Dick received Trademark Registration no. 0356815 for the term “Mimeograph” in the US Patent Office. It is currently listed as a dead entry, but shows the A.B. Dick Company of Chicago as the owner of the name.
Over time, the term became generic and is now an example of a genericized trademark. (“Roneograph,” also “Roneo machine,” was another trademark used for mimeograph machines, the name being a contraction of Rotary Neostyle.)
Others who worked concurrently on the development of stencil duplicating were Eugenio de Zaccato and David Gestetner, both in Britain.
In Britain the machines were most often referred to as “duplicators,” though the predominance of Gestetner and Roneo in the UK market meant that some people referred to the machine by one of those two manufacturers’ names.
In 1891, Gestetner patented his Automatic Cyclostyle. This was one of the first rotary machines that retained the flatbed, which passed back and forth under inked rollers.
This invention provided for more automated, faster reproductions since the pages were produced and moved by rollers instead of pressing one single sheet at a time.
By 1900, two primary types of mimeographs had come into use: a single-drum machine and a dual-drum machine. The single-drum machine used a single drum for ink transfer to the stencil, and the dual-drum machine used two drums and silk-screens to transfer the ink to the stencils.
The single drum (example Roneo) machine could be easily used for multi-color work by changing the drum – each of which contained ink of a different color.
This was spot color for mastheads. Colors could not be mixed.
The mimeograph became popular because it was much cheaper than traditional print – there was neither typesetting nor skilled labor involved.
One individual with a typewriter and the necessary equipment became his own printing factory, allowing for greater circulation of printed material.