While preferring silence to music from the West, chimpanzees apparently like to listen to the different rhythms of music from Africa and India, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association.
“Our objective was not to find a preference for different cultures’ music.
We used cultural music from Africa, India and Japan to pinpoint specific acoustic properties,” said study coauthor Frans de Waal, PhD, of Emory University.
“Past research has focused only on Western music and has not addressed the very different acoustic features of non-Western music. While nonhuman primates have previously indicated a preference among music choices, they have consistently chosen silence over the types of music previously tested.”
Previous research has found that some nonhuman primates prefer slower tempos, but the current findings may be the first to show that they display a preference for particular rhythmic patterns, according to the study.
“Although Western music, such as pop, blues and classical, sound different to the casual listener, they all follow the same musical and acoustic patterns.
Therefore, by testing only different Western music, previous research has essentially replicated itself,” the authors wrote.
The study was published in APA’s Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition.
When African and Indian music was played near their large outdoor enclosures, the chimps spent significantly more time in areas where they could best hear the music.
When Japanese music was played, they were more likely to be found in spots where it was more difficult or impossible to hear the music.
The African and Indian music in the experiment had extreme ratios of strong to weak beats, whereas the Japanese music had regular strong beats, which is also typical of Western music.
“Chimpanzees may perceive the strong, predictable rhythmic patterns as threatening, as chimpanzee dominance displays commonly incorporate repeated rhythmic sounds such as stomping, clapping and banging objects,” said de Waal.
“Singing, Ringing Tree,” played by the wind in Lancashire (photograph by Mark Tighe)
Other than the ubiquitous wind-chimes sounding on your balcony, there are a variety of instruments that are played only by the wind, ranging from those small enough to sit on your windowsill to massive pieces of modern art and poorly-designed skyscrapers.
While known in ancient Greece, India, and China, the Aeolian harp (“Aeolian” from the ancient Greek god and “keeper of the winds,” Aeolus) was “rediscovered” in Europe during the 1650s, by Athanasius Kircher, a German Jesuit priest, and went on to become a popular feature in Romantic-era households.
The idea is simple: a number of strings (usually an even number) are strung over a sound chamber, and the instrument is then left somewhere with a strong breeze.
The wind does the rest.
Oodena Celebration Circle (photograph by AJ Batac)
The Forks is a community meeting place in Winnipeg, and the impressive-looking Forks mark the autumnal equinox and the summer and winter solstices. The location is believed to date back 6,000 years as a place of gathering.
Bee Gees Way, Redcliffe, set up as a tribute to the Bee Gees by the Moreton Bay Regional Council.
It was the late 1950s when three young brothers and their family moved to Redcliffe, Queensland. In 1958 the Gibb brothers played their first gig at the Redcliffe speedway.
Barry Gibb and his mother Barbara went on to sign the band’s first music contract with speedway promoter Bill Goode and radio announcer Bill Gates – on the family’s kitchen table in Redcliffe.
The Bee Gees were formed and went on to receive their first airplay on radio 4BH.
Breaking through – the 1960s
In the early 1960s the Bee Gees began booking gigs and appearing on local Queensland television shows, performing songs written by Barry Gibb.
In 1966 the Bee Gees released their first big single, Spicks and Specks.
Following a succession of top ten Australian singles, including Spicks and Specks, the Bee Gees returned to England to pursue their musical dreams.
Like many other young bands emerging from Britain – including the Beatles, the Animals, the Moody Blues, the Byrds and the Yardbirds – their music was heavily influenced by country, R&B and blues recordings that were coming out of America.
In mid-1967 the Bee Gees unveiled their first internationally released album – New York Mining Disaster 1941. The album made the Top 20 in England and America.
Among the other hit singles released by the Bee Gees during the 1960s were:
The photographs of Queen frontman Freddie Mercury were taken by friend and bandmate Brian May while the band were touring in the 1970s and ’80s.
From an early age May traveled with a stereo (3-D) camera, so on tours and during recordings he was able to capture rare behind-the-scenes moments of one of the world’s greatest rock bands.
These amazing photos are from Queen in 3-D book, which is illustrated with over 300 photographs, the majority actually taken by Brian May, and mostly in 3-D.
These shots of Freddie Mercury, John Deacon, Roger Taylor, and Brian himself, on and off stage all round the world.
Through the eyes of Brian’s camera you are transported back in time to experience Queen’s miraculous journey as if you were actually there whether in a dressing room, in a car, on a plane, or on stage.
The 3D effect works because of a principle called stereopsis. Each eye is in a different location, and as a result, it sees a slightly different image. The difference between these images is what lets us perceive depth.
This effect can be replicated with photography by taking two pictures of the subject that are offset by the same distance as your pupils (about 2.5 inches or 63 mm).
The two images are then viewed so that each eye sees only the corresponding picture.
Your brain puts the two images together just as it does for normal vision and you perceive a single three dimensional image.