Bundy brothers torn apart by a Time Clock.

GG-Belli-orologio-ufficio

It was a disaster for the families.
But it started well. The inventor of an early version of the time clock was a jeweler, Willard Legrand Bundy of Auburn, New York.
His brother, Harlow Bundy, an entrepreneur, formed Bundy Manufacturing Company in 1889 to produce Willard’s time clock.
Their “workman’s time-recorder” captured on paper tape the arrival and departure times of employees. Businesses and factories across the country began using the recorder.
In 1900, Bundy Manufacturing merged with other companies to form international time recording, which later became IBM.
But the brothers, who worked together, had disagreements, starting with the firing of one of Willard’s sons.
Willard eventually left the company , too. His sons formed a rival time recording company using a new patent. Harlow’s company hammered them with lawsuits for years.
Family disputes aside, the value of the time clock was immediately obvious. It’s ability to accurately track workers’ hours helped workers, who had proof of time worked.
And managers received data more accurately and efficiently than from human time recorders.
via Two Brothers Time Clock | Orbital Shift.

Mergenthaler’s Linotype, Part One.

11Although Ottmar Mergenthaler was born in Hatchel, Germany in 1854 and received his early training as a watchmaker in Württemberg, his creative career started and flourished after he arrived in Washington, D.C. in 1872 at the age of eighteen.
His first job could not have been more serendipitous: he started work in the scientific instrument shop of August Hahl, his step-cousin and the son of his former master in Germany. Much of the shop’s work was the making of working models of new inventions, which were then required by the U.S. Patent Office.
For the next four years, Mergenthaler’s skill and ingenuity were applied to this work, and his special talents were soon recognized.
When Hahl transferred his business to Baltimore in 1876, Mergenthaler accompanied him. One of his first projects there was to correct the defects of a machine intended to produce printing by a combination of typewriting and lithography.
The idea for the invention came from James O. Clephane of Washington. Although the machine never yielded satisfactory results, it set Mergenthaler on the path to revolutionizing the casting of type.
Clephane then suggested a machine that could punch indented characters into papier-maché, producing type through a stereotype casting. Mergenthaler, after a short examination of the idea, doubted its practicality, but on Clephane’s urging continued.
Mergenthaler completed the machine in late 1878, but in spite of much effort Mergenthaler’s misgivings proved correct. Clephane and his associates worked without Mergenthaler until they abandoned the project in 1884.
After abandoning the Clephane project, Mergenthaler proceeded on his own, and began by rethinking the entire concept. Here we can see the value of the outsider’s objective thinking; if Mergenthaler had training in printing it is quite likely he might have attempted another incremental improvement, instead of the revolutionary invention he produced.
At the time of his work, in the 1880s, there were scores of typesetting machines being invented and many were in daily use in this country and in Europe.

linotipo

Mergenthaler’s concept was to produce a machine that did not merely set previously cast type, as the other machines did, but to combine the casting of type with the composition of text in a single operation.
With the backing of Clephane and L. G. Hine, a Washington lawyer, Mergenthaler produced a small experimental machine and then, in the fall of 1883, a full-sized machine. This machine continued the use of papier-mâché matrices, but soon a new idea came into Mergenthalier’s mind: “Why have a separate matrix at all; why can I not stamp matrices into my type bars and cast metal into them in the same machine?”
By July, 1884 two new machines on this principle were completed. In his own words, “Smoothly and silently the matrices slid into their places, were clamped and aligned, the pump discharged its contents, a finished Linotype, shining like silver, dropped from the machine and the matrices returned to their normal positions.”
This was the first test of the direct casting band machine of 1884. His backers formed The National Typographic Company, and work proceeded. A band machine with automatic wedges for line justification was completed in February, 1885, and was seen and complimented by President Chester Arthur.
In a speech at the time, Mergenthaler said “I am convinced, gentlemen, that unless some method of printing can be devised which requires no type at all, the method embodied in our invention will be the one used in the future; not alone because it is cheaper, but mainly because it is destined to secure superior quality.”
Source: Ottmar Merganthaler and the Linotype – Letterpress Commons

The Select-O-Matic Jukebox,1948.

Myron Holbert, shown with the Seeburg Selec-O-Matic "200" library demonstrated for the first time in Los Angeles, April 2, 1948. It stores and automatically plays 200 selections which are accomplished by merely setting a lever to play either side or both sides of any record in the whole library and the whole library can be played without anyone touching the records. A revolutionary development is the playing of both sides of the record without turning it over. (AP Photo)

Myron Holbert, shown with the Seeburg Select-O-Matic “200” library demonstrated for the first time in Los Angeles, April 2, 1948. It stores and automatically plays 200 selections which are accomplished by merely setting a lever to play either side or both sides of any record in the whole library and the whole library can be played without anyone touching the records. A revolutionary development is the playing of both sides of the record without turning it over. (AP Photo)

In this photo from April of 1948 we see engineer Myron Holbert, who’s showing off the Seeburg Select-O-Matic jukebox.
The machine held a relatively enormous library of music — 200 selections!
And although the jukebox became a symbol of the postwar teen music explosion, it predates the 1950s.
In fact, it was during the 1930s that America saw an incredible rise in the number of jukeboxes filling dance halls and diners.
Source: This Was a Jukebox in 1948

“The Typographer.”

william_a_burt_1873
Among William Austin Burt’s numerous inventions were the typographer in 1829, which was a predecessor to the modern-day typewriter.
The “typographer” was the first constructed and operating typewriter anywhere according to Burt.
Burt searched far and wide for an appropriate name for his invention, but reluctantly settled with “typographer” which ultimately became “typewriter.”
It consisted of a wooden box and at one end there was a swinging lever for impressing.
The typeface letters were mounted on a short sector attached on the underside of the lever.
Pressing down with pressure imprinted the letter selected on the paper.
When a page was full it was torn off like a paper towel, as the paper was on a large continuous roll. One could print both upper and lower case letters.
1024px-W_A_Burt_typographerThe first writing machine Burt built did not live up to his expectation, so he built an improved version six months later that wasn’t much faster.
The improvements were mostly in looks and appearance for marketing the machine to investors.
While Burt’s typographer generated a lot of interest and did a very good job of typing clear and neat letters it did not become a commercial success.
The typographer was “born out of season” and was before its time, so no market was found for his typewriter or the patent in his lifetime.
Read more via William Austin Burt – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Early Hair Dryers.

Before the invention of hair dryers, women would often attach hoses to the exhaust ends of vacuum cleaners to blow-dry their hair.

vintage hair dryers (1)A woman sits under a chrome-plated hair dryer, 1928. (Keystone-France/Getty Images)c. vintage hair dryers (2)

1928 (Corbis)

vintage hair dryers (3)

A stylist uses a freestanding dryer to blow dry a client’s hair with controlled precision at the Hairdressing Fair of Fashion in London, 1929. (Puttnam /Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)

See more Images vintage everyday: Vintage Beauty Salons – Hilarious Photos of the Early Hair Dryers from between the 1920s and 1940s

Polaroid Land Camera Model 95A’

A vintage Polaroid Land Camera Model 95A (1954–1957). Image Credit: Getty Images.
In 1947 Polaroid introduced an instant photographic process, which allowed pictures to be ready within seconds.
Polaroid cameras encouraged the production of more intimate and candid pictures.
However, it was 1977 by the time the inexpensive and fully automatic Polaroid OneStep Land model made the instant Polaroid picture integral to family photography.
With a Polaroid it was no longer necessary to expose more than one image, or to wait for the pictures to return from the lab before seeing the results.
By giving users full control over the handling of their photographs, Polaroid cameras encouraged the production of more intimate and candid pictures as it was no longer necessary to put them into the hands of strangers for processing.
Source: BBC Arts – Photography – Five game-changing cameras that turned us into photographers