The Mushuanu Innu of Labrador.

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Labrador, Canada
The Mushuau Innu of Labrador were one of the last indigenous peoples to be forced to settle by the Canadian government in 1967.
Many families still stay Nutshimit (on the land) for several months, hunting caribou, fishing and picking berries while living in their tents.
Image Credit: Photograph by Sarah Sandring/Survival International
via Indigenous peoples – in pictures | Art and design | The Guardian.

Berbers of the High Atlas Mountains.

Tinfgam, High Atlas mountains, Morocco
The Berbers are the oldest inhabitants of north Africa. For thousands of years, they have been living on a vast expanse of land stretching from Morocco’s Atlantic coast to Siwa Oasis in Egypt.
They have their own language and cultural traditions, but their identity is under threat.
This is Touda, with her daughter, in the High Atlas mountains. 2016: from Ferhat Bouda’s series Berbers in Morocco, Resisting and Defending Their Culture
Image Credit: Photograph byAgence VU/Ferhat Bouda.
Source: China’s fake sheep shame: news from everywhere – in pictures | Art and design | The Guardian

The Mabo Decision and the absurdist fiction of “Terra Nullius.”

A replica of Captain Cook’s ship in Sydney: ‘The marks of Indigenous civilisation stretching to 60,000 years were all over this continent when Cook arrived.’ Photograph: The Sydney Morning Herald/Fairfax Media via Getty Images
A quarter of a century to the day since the high court overturned the proposition of terra nullius in the Mabo case, it’s worth contemplating just how laughable was the British assertion that this land belonged to no one when Captain Cook sailed in.

Terra nullius is a Latin expression deriving from Roman law meaning “nobody’s land”, which is used in international law to describe territory which has never been subject to the sovereignty of any state, or over which any prior sovereign has expressly or implicitly relinquished .

The marks of Indigenous civilisation stretching to 60,000 years were all over this vast continent when Cook arrived at Kamay – now Botany Bay – aboard the Endeavour in autumn 1770.
For starters, some 750,000 Indigenous people lived here and their elaborate life signs – shell middens as high as today’s city buildings, age-old tracks, multi-generational camps, boats traversing the waterway trade routes, scarred trees from which canoes had been cut, elaborate rock carvings and paintings, fire-controlled grasslands, ancient burial grounds – prevailed.
It was a prescient first contact ahead of the first fleet invasion in 1788: Cook’s men shot at least one Gweagal tribesman and stole traditional weapons that remain, today, in the British Museum.

In Cook’s cabin were his secret instructions from the British admiralty that read, in part: “You are … with the Consent of the Natives to take Possession of Convenient Situations in the Country in the Name of the King of Great Britain: Or: if you find the Country uninhabited take Possession for his Majesty by setting up Proper Marks and Inscriptions.”

Yes … “with the Consent of the Natives …” Which one of those Gweagal tribesmen or women said: “Sure, Captain – take it all”?
Cook claimed the lot, nonetheless.It’s never been clear if the high court in Mabo v Queensland (No 2) carefully considered the admiralty’s instructions to Cook in determining that the Meriam people of the Torres Strait held traditional ownership of their land and that native title, therefore, applied to all Indigenous people.
But implicit in those secret instructions is the implication that the land, if inhabited, was someone else’s for the asking.
It underscores, in part, the vast, almost comic, absurdist fiction of the convenient notion of some Australian terra nullius – “nobody’s land” – that endured for so long after invasion and occupation.
Read on further via Source Mabo 25 years on: let’s look at the vast, absurdist fiction this ruling toppled | Paul Daley | Australia news | The Guardian

Why is Australia Day held on 26 January?

Meeting organised by the Aborigines Protection Association in the Australian Hall Sydney on 26 January 1938. From left William Ferguson, Jack Kinchela, Isaac Ingram, Doris Williams, Esther Ingram, Arthur Williams, Phillip Ingram, Louisa Agnes Ingram OAM holding daughter Olive Ingram and Jack Patten.

Photograph: State Library of NSW/a429002h
Why is Australia Day held on 26 January?
26 January 1788 was the day the first fleet pulled into Sydney Cove and planted a British flag in the soil. They arrived in Botany Bay about a week earlier.
It was first celebrated as a public holiday in 1818, on the 30th anniversary of that landing.
The day was known variously as “foundation day,” “anniversary day” or “first landing” until 1946, when commonwealth and state governments agreed they should all celebrate the anniversary of British colonisation on the same day, and that day should be called “Australia Day”.
The public holiday was not consistently held on 26 January until 1994, but was generally used to create a long weekend within that week.
It has been recognised as a day of protest by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people since at least 1938, when a national day of mourning was held during the sesquicentenary celebrations in Sydney.
via What our leaders say about Australia Day – and where did it start, anyway? | Australia news | The Guardian

Aboriginal shield from Captain Cook’s skirmish at Botany Bay,1770.

6037792-3x2-700x467Photo: A shield collected at Botany Bay during Captain Cook’s visit in 1770. (Supplied: British Museum)
A shield collected after a skirmish with natives at Botany Bay in 1770 (Cook’s first trip to New Holland) is set to go on display at the British Museum as part of an “immensely important” exhibition devoted to the history of Indigenous Australia.
The exhibition will draw on objects from the British Museum’s collection and loans from Australian and British collections.
The bark shield is believed to have been collected by Captain James Cook or one of his men, and has a small hole believed to have been made by a spear.
Gaye Sculthorpe, the British Museum’s curator for Oceania and Australia, has previously described the shield as a “truly remarkable, significant, important object”.
“There was a skirmish on the beach and this shield was dropped and it was collected and brought back to England,” she said in 2013, when planning for the display was underway.
Objects from the early days in Sydney are particularly significant because very few are left after fire destroyed the Australian Museum’s collection in 1882.
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Photo: Yumari by Uta Uta Tjangala (c. 1926–1990) of the Pintupi people. (Supplied: British Museum)
The exhibition also includes the masterpiece Yumari, a design which now features on the watermark of current Australian passports, along with a protest placard from the Aboriginal Tent Embassy established in 1972, contemporary paintings and specially-commissioned artworks from leading Indigenous artists.
The exhibition is expected to bring these artefacts to a wide audience – the British Museum welcomes over 6 million visitors a year, similar to the total number of overseas visitors to Australia.
“The objects displayed in this exhibition are immensely important,” the museum said in a statement.
Read on via British Museum exhibit set to showcase Australian Indigenous history; includes Aboriginal shield from Botany Bay – ABC News

Life in Arctic Bay.

A photographer’s journey into the Canadian Arctic reveals the vibrancy of life in one of the coldest inhabited regions on the planet.
In early November the sun dips below the horizon in Arctic Bay and the sky bruises violet and blue.
The sun won’t rise again here for three months, plunging the landscape into infinite twilight.
Amid tundra and sea, Nunavut (“our land” in Inuktitut) is the largest and northernmost territory of Canada, where a majority of the country’s Inuit population cluster in remote coastal communities.
Photographer and Fulbright grantee Acacia Johnson embraced one of the coldest and darkest winters on Earth in order to document the Inuit’s evolving relationship with their environment in her dreamlike series, Under the Same Stars.
“The only constant thing about the Arctic landscape is that it’s constantly changing,” Johnson says. “My [original] idea was to do this landscape project … I showed up and the reality is quite different from what you imagine. Instead, it seemed more important for me to focus on the cultural transition happening there.”
The faces of the Tatatoapik family glow under the light of the full moon. Each of their parkas has been sewn by women in the family.
Image Credit: Photographs by ACACIA JOHNSON.
Source: Dreamy Photographs Illuminate Life in Dark Arctic Winters | Travel | National Geographic Australia – National Geographic