Treating Coulrophobia: The fear of Clowns.

Clowns line up during the 22nd Latin American clown convention at Revolución monument, Mexico.
Image Credit: Photograph by Edgard Garrido/Reuters.
In order to be able to treat coulrophobia, one needs to analyze what is the origin of clown phobia:
• Is it the fear of unknown?
• The fact that behind the smiley face there could be anyone?
• Is it that the clown has no social norms, can break up barriers of interaction and that makes one person uncomfortable with them?
• Or is it a childhood experience?
• Maybe a movie?
In a broader sense even Charlie Chaplin could be catalogued as a clown because of his characters, but there is no fear of Chaplin.
Is it just the mask that makes the difference?
Unfortunately there is no cure for clown phobia. It depends on each person.
But if coulrophobia is something you can’t live without, you should gradually accommodate yourself to the idea of clowns.
Maybe first watch some videos of clowns performing funny acts over the internet.
Sometimes, clowns putting their make up in front of the public can help relieve the tension of some coulrophobiacs as they can see it is just a mask, and they could see the real person behind the mask.
With some people, this is just enough, but obviously this cannot be possible in every social situation.
The fear of clowns is not something you should be ashamed of.
Many people share the same fear and if you have any positive experience in overcoming your fear, share it below so that fellow coulrophobes can learn too.
Source: Coulrophobia treatment – COULROPHOBIA: The fear of Clowns

Man who ate Reaper Chilli Pepper ended up in hospital.

As you sow, so shall you reap … Carolina Reapers, formerly the world’s hottest chilli peppers. Eating one appears to have given a man reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.
Image Credit: Photograph by Photograph: Alamy
A man who took part in a chilli pepper eating contest ended up with more than he bargained for when he took on the hottest pepper in the world.
After eating a Carolina Reaper pepper, the 34-year-old started dry heaving before developing a pain in his neck that turned into a series of thunderclap headaches: sudden and severe episodes of excruciating pain that peak within a minute.
The Carolina Reaper, which can top 2.2m on the Scoville heat scale, was the world’s hottest pepper at the time of the incident in 2016 – although new breeds called Pepper X and Dragon’s Breath have since reportedly surpassed it.
The details, published in the journal BMJ Case Reports, reveal the pain was so terrible the man went to the emergency room at Bassett Medical Center in Cooperstown, a village in New York State.
“[A thunderclap headache] lasts for a few minutes and it might be associated with dry-heaving, nausea, vomiting – and then it gets better on its own.
But it keeps coming back,” said Dr Kulothungan Gunasekaran of the Henry Ford HealthSystem in Detroit, a co-author of the report, adding that thunderclap headaches can be caused by a number of problems including bleeding inside the brain or blood clots.
CT and MRI scans of the man’s brain were taken but showed nothing out of the ordinary. What’s more, the man did not report having any speech or vision problems.
Read on via Man eats world’s hottest chilli pepper – and ends up in hospital | Science | The Guardian

A young Child in a charcoal field in India.

A young child engulfed by plumes of smoke from burning coal inside an unregulated charcoal production field in Jharkhand, India, which holds some of India’s largest coal reserves.
Image Credit: Photograph by Ashley Crowther
Source: Paper tigers exhibition: Australia’s contemporary photojournalists – in pictures | Art and design | The Guardian

Coronavirus information: What should I do?

What are the symptoms – and what should I do if I feel unwell?

Source: Coronavirus information: What should I do? – BBC News

Gunnison, Colorado: the town that dodged the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic.

Spanish influenza victims crowd into an emergency hospital at Camp Funston, Kansas, United States in 1918. Photograph: Associated Press
In late 1918 the world’s greatest killer – Spanish flu – roared towards Gunnison, a mountain town in Colorado.
The pandemic was infecting hundreds of millions of people in Europe, Africa, Asia and across the United States, overwhelming hospitals and morgues in Boston and Philadelphia before sweeping west, devastating cities, villages and hamlets from Alaska to Texas.
Gunnison, a farming and mining town of about 1,300 people, had special reason to fear.
Two railroads connected it to Denver and other population centres, many badly hit.
“The flu is after us” the Gunnison News-Champion warned on 10 October, 1918. “It is circulating in almost every village and community around us”.
What happened next is instructive amid a new global health emergency a century later as the world struggles to react to the emergence of coronavirus.
Gunnison declared a “quarantine against all the world”.
It erected barricades, sequestered visitors, arrested violators, closed schools and churches and banned parties and street gatherings, a de facto lockdown that lasted four months.
It worked. Gunnison emerged from the pandemic’s first two waves – by far the deadliest – without a single case. It was one of a handful of so-called “escape communities” that researchers have analysed for insights into containing the apparently uncontainable.
Read on via Source: Gunnison, Colorado: the town that dodged the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic | World news | The Guardian

It Killed anyone.

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The influenza pandemic of 1918 killed well over 50 million people around the world.

The image above shows people playing baseball while wearing masks.

The crowd wear masks as well. And that reflects the most terrifying and devastating aspect of the 1918 pandemic in a way the other pictures don’t:

It killed anyone. Young, healthy adults—of the sort that play baseball—normally rarely care about the flu, but the 1918 outbreak was different.

It killed anyone, and we still don’t really know why.

The photo also represents a sad futility when you learn that the masks didn’t protect people.

While cotton gauze may stop bacteria, viruses are much smaller.

Yet pictures record large groups wearing them, from police in Seattle, to paperboys in Canada, to soldiers in France, right down to the general public.

Not one of them was protected in any way from one of the deadliest events in human history.

Read on via 10 Poignant Photographs From Humanity’s Lowest Moments – Listverse.

Ruysch, the Artist of “Death”.

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Detail from Jan van Neck’s Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Frederick Ruysch (1683), showing Ruysch in the centre with an infant cadaver.
When visiting Frederik Ruysch in Amsterdam in 1697, Tsar Peter the Great kissed one of the specimens from his anatomical museum, and afterwards bought the entire collection.
Three hundred years later, the Dutch crown prince, Willem Alexander, when visiting St Petersburg, was withheld from seeing Ruysch’s work. Diplomats had decided the prince had to be spared the sight of the ‘macabre, deformed foetuses’ that Ruysch had preserved.
If he had heard this, Frederik Ruysch would have turned in his grave.
Not that he would have been surprised to hear that his preparations had survived three centuries, for he would have expected nothing less. Nor would he have been astonished to find a prince taking an interest in his work.
But he would have been dismayed to hear his specimens described as macabre, since it was precisely the beauty of his preparations that earned Ruysch long-lasting fame. For centuries, friend and foe alike have agreed that he should be credited, above all, with making anatomy an acceptable pursuit.
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A depiction of one of Ruysch’s displays, featuring infant skeleton’s weeping into handkerchiefs, as featured in Alle de ontleed- genees- en heelkindige werken…van Fredrik Ruysch.
Read more via Frederik Ruysch: The Artist of Death | The Public Domain Review.

The Painful Art of Tooth pulling, circa 18th Century.

Gripping moment … a tooth being extracted by an evil looking blacksmith/dentist, in an 18th-century oil painting.
The blacksmith-cum-dentist seems to be enjoying himself as he uses a pair of giant pincers to remove a tooth – or teeth – from the mouth of a frightened and distraught patient.
Much Pain awaits this poor devil
Source: This will hurt: a history of dentistry – in pictures | Art and design | The Guardian

Oil of Wintergreen for pain relief still used today.

wintergreenAll-Purpose Pain Relief
Back Then: [Wintergreen] boiled in wine and water and given to drink to them that have any inward ulcers in their kidneys or neck of the bladder, doth wonderfully help them; it stayeth also all fluxes, whether of blood or humours, [such] as the lask, bloody flux, women’s courses, and bleeding of the womb, and taketh away any inflammation rising upon pains of the heart.
– The English Physician, Nicholas Culpeper, 1652
And Now: Oil of wintergreen, now obtained by distillation of the leaves, contains methyl salicylate, similar to aspirin, which is a longstanding treatment for cardiovascular conditions including heart attacks, acting as an anti-inflammatory and blood thinner.
via From Toads to Tinctures, Curious Remedies of the Past | DiscoverMagazine.com.

Circumcision in Egypt, circa 2400 BCE.

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This is one of the oldest known illustrations of circumcision being performed.
Actually, it’s a colorful re-creation of a bas-relief found in an Egyptian tomb built for Ankhmabor in Sakkara, Egypt. It dates back to around 2400 B.C.E.
The origins of circumcision remain unclear. According to this online essay, a stele (carving on stone) from the 23rd century B.C.E. suggests that an author named “Uha” was circumcised in a mass ritual.
He wrote:
When I was circumcised, together with one hundred and twenty men, there was none thereof who hit out, there was none thereof who was hit, and there was none thereof who scratched and there was none thereof who was scratched.”
By the time you get to 4,000 B.C.E., you start to find exhumed Egyptian bodies that show signs of circumcision.
And then come the artistic depictions.
The Sakkara depiction comes with the perhaps helpful written warning,“Hold him and do not allow him to faint.”
via The Oldest Known Illustration of Circumcision (2400 B.C.E.) – | Open Culture.