Louis Pasteur’s Germ Theory of Disease.

Louis Pasteur was born in Dole France, married to Marie Laurent and had five children.
Three of his children died of typhoid fever, maybe leading to Pasteur’s drive to save people from disease.
He graduated in 1842 from Besancon College Royal de la Franche with honors in physics, mathematics, Latin, and drawing. Louis Pasteur later attended Ecole Normale to study physics and chemistry, specializing in crystals.
In his early research Pasteur worked with the wine growers of France, helping with the fermentation process to develop a way to pasteurize and kill germs.
He was granted U.S. patent 135,245 for “Improvement in Brewing Beer and Ale Pasteurization.”
Pasteur then worked within the textile industry finding a cure for a disease affecting silk worms.
He also found cures for chicken cholera, anthrax and rabies.
The Pasteur Institute
The Pasteur Institute was opened in 1888. During Louis Pasteur’s lifetime it was not easy for him to convince others of his ideas, controversial in their time but considered absolutely correct today.
Pasteur fought to convince surgeons that germs existed and carried diseases, and dirty instruments and hands spread germs and therefore disease. Pasteur’s pasteurization process killed germs and prevented the spread of disease.
The Germ Theory of Disease
Louis Pasteur’s main contributions to microbiology and medicine were; instituting changes in hospital/medical practices to minimize the spread of disease by microbes or germs, discovering that weak forms of disease could be used as an immunization against stronger forms and that rabies was transmitted by viruses too small to be seen under the microscopes of the time, introducing the medical world to the concept of viruses.
via Louis Pasteur – Germ Theory of Disease.

The Life of Sarah ‘Crazy Sally’ Mapp, London’s Greatest Bonesetter.

A bonesetting illustration from 1871. W. P. Hood/CC BY 4.0
It was along the Old Kent Road, somewhere between the town of Epsom and London, that a mob of 18th-century rabble rousers thought they spotted one of King George II’s hated mistresses riding in a carriage, and decided to harass her.
But as the crowd gathered around the transport, a large, imperious, and possibly drunk woman leaned out to give them hell, shouting, “Damn your blood, don’t you know me, I am Mrs. Mapp, the bonesetter.”
Recognizing her as a respected bonesetter, or shape-mistress, according to a passage in the 1874 collection The Funny Side of Physic, the crowd cheered in delight.
Thus was the life of Sarah “Crazy Sally” Mapp, a remarkable woman who was known for her acid tongue and for her ability to shove bones back into place. Before the rise of contemporary fields such as orthopedics, the practice of bonesetting was common, and typically involved strong but formally untrained tradesmen who would reset broken, slipped, or dislocated bones and joints using brute force.
The skill was often, as in Mapp’s case, passed down among family members. Her father, John Wallin, shared his bonesetting skills with his daughter, allowing her to fill in when he wasn’t available. Eventually her skills surpassed even her father’s.
Known for her temper and brash demeanor (as well as her drinking), Sally often got into fights with her father as she got older. According to a short account of her life in the 1824 book The Cabinet of Curiosities: Or, Wonders of the World Displayed, it was after one such row that she struck out on her own, taking the skills she’d learned and starting her own traveling practice.
Sally eventually gained a reputation for her successful techniques and moved her operations to the wealthy resort town of Epsom around 1735. She found a devoted clientele in the horse-racing culture of the town. Local riders were often in need of her services after falling off their steeds.
Read on via The Rapid Rise and Spectacular Fall of London’s Greatest Bonesetter – Atlas Obscura

The Earliest Patients of Brain Surgery.

0(Photo: Cushing Tumor Registry – Cushing/Whitney Medical Library/Yale University)
For more than three decades, two amazing relics of medical history lay rotting underneath a Yale University dorm—Dr. Harvey Cushing’s collection of brains, and his collection of patient photography.
The former has been given its own exhibition space in Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library, Yale University, open to the public since 2010.
About 500 brains sit in the $1.4 million-dollar Cushing Center, carefully preserved in the leaden glass jars in which they arrived.
The 10,000 glass plates, though, have only just begun their journey to public consumption.
Its contents are finally beginning to be seen—the pictures in this story have only been digitized in the past year and they are published here for the first time. The images are staggering.
Babies with distended skulls sit on a mother’s knee.
Neat scars form patterns on patient skulls, like farmland seen from an airplane window. Often, the photos are taken in profile, or are a close-up of hands.
Some of the most bewitching pictures involve a patient staring at the camera head-on, with a directness rare in today’s selfie-strewn world.


“They just keep revealing themselves,” says Terry Dagradi, Cushing Center Coordinator, “
They are amazing not because they were shot to be amazing.
See more Images via See These Stunning Photos Of Brain Surgery’s Earliest Patients | Atlas Obscura.

Read a Book, You may Live Longer.

Let’s face it: People who love to read have long felt superior to those who would rather watch Television than crack a good book.
Now, reports The Guardian’s Alison Flood, there’s a new reason to justify those late nights binge reads and long library trips: Reading could help you live longer.
A new study in the journal Social Science and Medicine suggests that elderly people who read books have what authors call “a survival advantage” over those who don’t.
Researchers used information from the National Institute on Aging’s Health and Retirement Study, a large public resource on adults 50 years and older in the United States, to tease out correlations between reading and longevity.
The study includes a survey on activities that categorized aging adults’ reading habits.
The researchers gave participants a reading score that characterized the amount of time they spent reading books or periodicals per week.
They also assessed participants’ cognitive engagement using scores that take the ability to perform cognitive tasks, like counting backward from 20, into consideration.
Then, they matched up each participant to information in the National Death Index, a central database of the names of people who died based on state reporting.
After poring over data from 3,635 participants and adjusting for factors like age, sex, race and education, researchers found that 27 percent of respondents who replied that they had read a book within the last week during the survey had died during 12 years of the study, compared to 33 percent of people who did not read books.
People who read books lived an average of 23 months longer than those who did not. The amount of time people spent reading seemed to matter too: People who read up to 3.5 hours a week were 17 percent less likely to die, and people who read more than that were 23 percent less likely.
Periodical and newspaper readers lived longer too, but not as long as those readers who preferred books.
“We uncovered that this effect is likely because books engage the reader’s mind more—providing more cognitive benefit, and therefore increasing the lifespan,” Avni Bavishi, who co-authored the study, tells Flood.
Read on further via Bookworms, Rejoice: You May Live Longer | Smart News | Smithsonian

Ruysch, the Artist of “Death”.


Detail from Jan van Neck’s Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Frederick Ruysch (1683), showing Ruysch in the centre with an infant cadaver.
When visiting Frederik Ruysch in Amsterdam in 1697, Tsar Peter the Great kissed one of the specimens from his anatomical museum, and afterwards bought the entire collection.
Three hundred years later, the Dutch crown prince, Willem Alexander, when visiting St Petersburg, was withheld from seeing Ruysch’s work. Diplomats had decided the prince had to be spared the sight of the ‘macabre, deformed foetuses’ that Ruysch had preserved.
If he had heard this, Frederik Ruysch would have turned in his grave.
Not that he would have been surprised to hear that his preparations had survived three centuries, for he would have expected nothing less. Nor would he have been astonished to find a prince taking an interest in his work.
But he would have been dismayed to hear his specimens described as macabre, since it was precisely the beauty of his preparations that earned Ruysch long-lasting fame. For centuries, friend and foe alike have agreed that he should be credited, above all, with making anatomy an acceptable pursuit.
A depiction of one of Ruysch’s displays, featuring infant skeleton’s weeping into handkerchiefs, as featured in Alle de ontleed- genees- en heelkindige werken…van Fredrik Ruysch.
Read more via Frederik Ruysch: The Artist of Death | The Public Domain Review.

“I hate Dentists” by Old Man Luke.

Rod Parham (derwombat) and Luke Heffernan enjoying some quality time in Light Square after the May Day March through Adelaide.
Photograph by Candace Parham.
Luke Heffernan is a “salt of the Earth” sort of bloke, with a great sense of humour and is to be quite honest (in my humble opinion) a working class Hero.
But if someone was to ask me what I remember most about Luke it is his stories of his pure hatred of going to the Dentist.
It started when as a young boy his mother took him to see an old Dentist in Adelaide that Luke describes as an “utter cruel bastard” who inflicted the young Luke with “monumental and hideous pain and enough blood” to terrify the young boy.
So much so so that for many years whenever the feelings of tooth pain entered the young bloke’s head it curiously disappeared on his way to the Dentist with his Mum.
So by the time he got to the front door of the surgery he was “cured”.
When Luke got older and the old Dentist had died, he became known in the Dentistry trade as a “dangerous patient to have”.
Why you might ask?
He would threaten each Dentist (no matter how good or nice they were) “to kick them in the nuts” if he felt the slightest pain. “You give me pain and I will give you pain,” he would say.
And you know what “IT WORKED”, says Comrade Luke Heffernan.