Treating Coulrophobia: The fear of Clowns.

Clowns line up during the 22nd Latin American clown convention at Revolución monument, Mexico.
Image Credit: Photograph by Edgard Garrido/Reuters.
In order to be able to treat coulrophobia, one needs to analyze what is the origin of clown phobia:
• Is it the fear of unknown?
• The fact that behind the smiley face there could be anyone?
• Is it that the clown has no social norms, can break up barriers of interaction and that makes one person uncomfortable with them?
• Or is it a childhood experience?
• Maybe a movie?
In a broader sense even Charlie Chaplin could be catalogued as a clown because of his characters, but there is no fear of Chaplin.
Is it just the mask that makes the difference?
Unfortunately there is no cure for clown phobia. It depends on each person.
But if coulrophobia is something you can’t live without, you should gradually accommodate yourself to the idea of clowns.
Maybe first watch some videos of clowns performing funny acts over the internet.
Sometimes, clowns putting their make up in front of the public can help relieve the tension of some coulrophobiacs as they can see it is just a mask, and they could see the real person behind the mask.
With some people, this is just enough, but obviously this cannot be possible in every social situation.
The fear of clowns is not something you should be ashamed of.
Many people share the same fear and if you have any positive experience in overcoming your fear, share it below so that fellow coulrophobes can learn too.
Source: Coulrophobia treatment – COULROPHOBIA: The fear of Clowns

Georg Trakl, Poet and Cocaine addict, 1887-1914.

15585838855_7455135728_bGeorg Trakl, poet in 1910.
He doesn’t know whether his behaviour was unusual, he didn’t drink but took large amounts of cocaine.
This remark is taken from the medical file of Georg Trakl and is part of a brief account of the poet’s movements and behaviour in the month or so preceding his committal for observation to a psychiatric hospital in Kraków in early October 1914.
Just six weeks earlier, towards the end of August, the 27-year-old Trakl had undertaken the 1000-kilometre train journey from Innsbruck, at the western end of the Habsburg Empire, to the far eastern crownland of Galicia, where he was to be deployed as a military pharmacist.
His frontline experience was brief but traumatic.
During the Battle of Grodek-Rawa Ruska, he was assigned sole care of ninety badly wounded soldiers sheltering in a barn, a task for which he had neither the training nor the equipment.
As he later recounted from his hospital bed in Kraków to his friend and publisher Ludwig von Ficker, when one of the wounded men had ended his own suffering by shooting himself in the head, Trakl had fled outside only to be confronted by the sight of local peasants hanging lifeless in the trees.
One evening during the westward retreat of the defeated Austro-Hungarian forces, he announced his own intention to shoot himself, but was forcefully disarmed by his comrades.
His committal followed on 6 October and he died in hospital on 3 November.
His medical file lists the cause of death, complete with exclamation mark, as “Suicid durch Cocainintoxication!”
Read more via Wild Heart Turning White: Georg Trakl and Cocaine | The Public Domain Review.

Electrical Therapy in Medicine and Dentistry, 1910.

14714618191_d7fcb09c86_oA selection of images from High Frequency Electric Currents in Medicine and Dentistry (1910) by champion of electro-therapeutics Samuel Howard Monell, a physician who the American X-Ray Journal cite, rather wonderfully, as having “done more for static electricity than any other living man”.
Although the use of electricity to treat physical ailments could be seen to stretch back to the when the ancient Greeks first used live electric fish to numb the body in pain, it wasn’t until the 18th and 19th centuries – through the work of Luigi Galvani and Guillaume Duchenne – that the idea really took hold.
Monell claims that his high frequency currents of electricity could treat a variety of ailments, including acne, lesions, insomnia, abnormal blood pressure, depression, and hysteria.
Although not explicitly delved into in this volume, the treatment of this latter condition in women was frequently achieved at this time through the use of an early form of the vibrator (to save the physician from the manual effort), through bringing the patient to “hysterical paroxysm” (in other words, an orgasm).
These days electrotherapy has been widely accepted in the field of physical rehabilitation, and also made the news recently in its use to keep soldiers awake (the treatment of fatigue also being one of Monell’s applications).
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Please go to the Website to fully appreciate the other Images via High Frequency Electric Currents in Medicine and Dentistry (1910) | The Public Domain Review.

The Earliest Patients of Brain Surgery.

0(Photo: Cushing Tumor Registry – Cushing/Whitney Medical Library/Yale University)
For more than three decades, two amazing relics of medical history lay rotting underneath a Yale University dorm—Dr. Harvey Cushing’s collection of brains, and his collection of patient photography.
The former has been given its own exhibition space in Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library, Yale University, open to the public since 2010.
About 500 brains sit in the $1.4 million-dollar Cushing Center, carefully preserved in the leaden glass jars in which they arrived.
The 10,000 glass plates, though, have only just begun their journey to public consumption.
Its contents are finally beginning to be seen—the pictures in this story have only been digitized in the past year and they are published here for the first time. The images are staggering.
Babies with distended skulls sit on a mother’s knee.
Neat scars form patterns on patient skulls, like farmland seen from an airplane window. Often, the photos are taken in profile, or are a close-up of hands.
Some of the most bewitching pictures involve a patient staring at the camera head-on, with a directness rare in today’s selfie-strewn world.

image

“They just keep revealing themselves,” says Terry Dagradi, Cushing Center Coordinator, “
They are amazing not because they were shot to be amazing.
See more Images via See These Stunning Photos Of Brain Surgery’s Earliest Patients | Atlas Obscura.

Kent Cigarettes had Asbestos Filters in the 1950s.

kentad1-350
It’s hard to think of anything more reckless than adding a deadly carcinogen to a product that already causes cancer—and then bragging about the health benefits.
Yet that’s precisely what Lorillard Tobacco did 60 years ago when it introduced Kent cigarettes, whose patented “Micronite” filter contained a particularly virulent form of asbestos.
Smokers puffed their way through 13 billion Kents between March 1952 and May 1956, when Lorillard changed the filter design.
Six decades later, the legal fallout continues a Florida jury has awarded more than $3.5 million in damages to a former Kent smoker stricken with mesothelioma, an extremely rare and deadly asbestos-related cancer that typically shows up decades after the initial exposures.
Lorillard and Hollingsworth & Vose, the company that supplied the asbestos filter material, face numerous claims from mesothelioma sufferers, both factory workers who produced the cigarettes or filter material and former smokers who say they inhaled the microscopic fibers. (The companies insist that hardly any fibres escaped.)
“Micronite” one ad boasted, is “a pure, dust-free, completely harmless material that is so safe, so effective, it actually is used to help filter the air in operating rooms.”
Kent was Lorillard’s response to the health scare of the early 1950s, when the link between smoking and lung cancer began drawing wide attention. Tobacco companies scurried to roll out filters to calm jittery smokers and keep them from quitting in droves.
The health benefits would prove illusory, but the switch to filters averted the potential loss of millions of customers. “The industry’s own researchers admitted that filters did nothing to make cigarettes safer,” notes Robert Proctor, a Stanford University historian whose 2012 book, Golden Holocaust, covers Big Tobacco’s tactics in painstaking detail.
“Philip Morris scientists in 1963 admitted that ‘the illusion of filtration’ was as important as ‘the fact of filtration.”
via Remember When Big Tobacco Sold Asbestos as the “Greatest Health Protection”? | Mother Jones.

Micrograph of a Nit (green) and a Human Hair (brown).

canvas Image via Wellcome Images.
by Kevin Mackenzie.
Scanning electron micrograph of a nit or head louse egg (coloured green) attached to a strand of human hair (coloured brown).
Head lice feed on human blood and live in close proximity to the scalp. Female lice lay eggs in sacs that attach firmly to individual strands of hair near the base of the hair shaft.
Most will hatch within seven to ten days, and the newly emerged immature louse (nymph) will then need to feed on blood to survive. The width of the image is 1.5 mm.
A head louse develops from an egg to an adult in 16 to 21 days. Head lice start out life as eggs, which are attached to the hair near the scalp to stay warm.
Eggs usually hatch within seven to ten days, and the newly emerged immature lice (nymphs) then need to feed on blood from the scalp to survive.
Nymphs go through three stages before maturing into adults, which can take around a week.
The adult louse is about the size of a sesame seed and has six legs with claws that help it cling on to the hair.
Adult lice can live for three to four weeks, but will only survive for one or two days away from a person’s head.
Wellcome Images.