Boxes containing Canberra’s first shipment of the demon drink after prohibition ends. Image Credit: National Archives of Australia.
by James Cameron,
On 22 December, 1910, new liquor licenses were banned in the Australian Capital Territory, and a 17 year dry spell for the capital began.
Shortly after the creation of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), which is now the ACT, the then-Minister of State for Home Affairs, King O’Malley, proposed that liquor sales be banned.
It became the very first ordinance passed in the new territory. “O’Malley was a quite influential figure in the early days of Canberra,” says Amy Lay, a curator at the National Archives of Australia. “He lobbied hard to keep alcohol out of the FCT, believing that it had a depressing influence”.
At the time the Cricketers’ Arms Hotel (which is now gone) was the territory’s only pub and so slid under this new set of rules.
Canberra’s prohibition wasn’t very effective The new rules wouldn’t stop the thirsty capital for long. “The laws only prevented the granting of liquor licenses in the ACT.
So you couldn’t get a license to open a bar, but you could bring alcohol into the ACT and drink it there,” Amy explains.
“There was nothing to stop someone from heading across the border to New South Wales to buy or drink alcohol,” says Amy. Workers, she says, simply saved up their thirst for a big night in the town of Queanbeyan, which was just across the border.
There was also no reason thirsty punters couldn’t just bring alcohol back. By 1927 the transport of liquor into Canberra had become so common that local guidebooks like A Descriptive guide to Canberra explained how to move liquor across the border.
“[This] guide to Canberra for workers moving there, explicitly states that one could simply drive over to Queanbeyan, fill their boot with grog and drive it back into Canberra for drinking,” Amy says.
Interestingly this ban was finally brought to an end by thirsty pollies. In June 1926 the Joint House Committee passed a resolution to allow the construction of a bar in Parliament House.
Members of parliament were deeply divided by this, some pollies announcing they would boycott the bar until the locals could drink at an establishment too. Outraged locals, who were still under prohibition, finally forced the issue.
A plebiscite took place on 1 September 1928, resulting in the removal of the prohibition.
The landscape of Sydney is unthinkable without its vibrant, character-filled and sometimes controversial pubs. Pubs define the pulse, personality and tempo of the city and provide a convenient yardstick of how our customs and social mores have evolved.
More than any other Australian institution, the pub provides a convenient yardstick to measure the way our customs and social mores have evolved over the years.
Think back to the makeshift grog shops in the goldfields; to the rough-and-tumble bush pubs where the drover or shearer cashed his season’s cheque and then attempted to drink his way through it; to the tiled, male-only monstrosities of the ‘six o’clock swill’ era; right up to the smart, architect designed inner-city bars, gastro pubs and mini casinos of today.
Pub is a shortened version of ‘public house’, which helps to explain the origin of many colonial-era hotels like The Lord Nelson Hotel in The Rocks, which claims to be the ‘oldest continuously licensed hotel in Sydney’.
The Lord Nelson was originally a two-storey private home built by William Wells in 1836 from sandstone blocks quarried by convicts from the base of Observatory Hill.
Wells obtained a liquor licence and in 1842 he opened the doors of his home to the public for the first time, naming his hotel after the English naval hero of the day.
The doors have remained open ever since, but the interior of the hotel and the nature of its clientele have changed over the years, reflecting whims of fashion and taste.
Sometime in the 1930s the sandstone walls in the public bar and upstairs were covered with tiles or coated with concrete render, as if to hide their naked historical significance.
Image Credit: Photograph by gswell · · From Snapped:
Photograph is of part of the South Australian section of the Australia’s extremely long Dog Fence.
The Dingo Fence or Dog Fence is a pest-exclusion fence that was built in Australia during the 1880s and finished in 1885, to keep dingoes out of the relatively fertile south-east part of the continent (where they had largely been exterminated) and protect the sheep flocks of southern Queensland.
It is one of the longest structures in the world and is the world’s longest fence.