The Paris Catacombs.

imageA spiral staircase in the Denfert-Rochereau section of the catacombs (all photographs by the author unless indicated)
Perhaps the most well-known “ruin” in Paris is the catacombs, a network of quarries that span around 200 miles under the city (in fact Parisians have been known to compare their city to a holey cheese there are so many tunnels dug out under the surface).
A small portion of the catacombs were renovated and turned into ossuaries when the original resting places for the bodies were no longer viable, giving it the reputation of being one of the world’s largest graves.
Since 1874, a section has been open on a regular basis for tourists. However, what a lot of tourists don’t realize is that this is only a small segment of the mass network of tunnels.
Upon entering the ossuaries, you are faced with this warning: “Arrête! C’est ici l’empire de la Mort” (“Stop! Here lies the Empire of Death”), whereupon you are met with the first of the remains of the six million people that are buried within the catacombs.
c1Le Carrefour des Morts (“The Crossroad of Death”), a part of the catacombs not open to the public (photograph by Adam Slater)
As a popular tourist attraction, the catacombs now often have an enormous queue snaking around the block, thus it is always advisable to be early and expect a wait, and dress in layers — it can be extremely cold or hot outside, but the catacombs maintain a fairly consistent temperature once you enter the quarry tunnels.
For the more daring, the museum is only the start of your potential journey. The tunnels extend far beyond what is available to see here, but nonetheless provides a fascinating visit. Though you might just find yourself bending the parameters of “easily accessible” and joining the cataphiles in order to seek out the rest.

Read on via The 10 Most Accessible Ruins in Paris | Atlas Obscura.

The Lost City of Heracleion.

Archaeologists Franck Goddio and his team inspect the colossal red granite statue of a pharaoh.
Picture by Christoph Gerigk © Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation.
By: James MacDonald
When people think of archaeology, they typically think of people labouring in the hot sun, or maybe underground. But those excavating the ancient Egyptian city of Heracleion have exchanged their sunblock for scuba gear.
According to science writer Laura Geggel, the lost city was first discovered off the coast of Alexandria, Egypt in 2000, and has been the subject of regular excavations ever since. Despite the tough working conditions, the drowned city routinely reveals wonders, including mostly recently the remains of a temple, gold jewellery, coins and the missing piece of a ceremonial boat.
Anne-Sophie von Bomhard writes in the Journal of Egyptian Archaeology about some of the more fascinating discoveries from Heracleion.
The city, named for the ancient Greek hero Heracles, spanned a period of Egyptian history before and during Greek influence.
Its Egyptian name was Thonis and the city is frequently referred to as Thonis-Heracleion. Intricate ceramics have been found, including a glazed, highly realistic-looking cobra.
Some seemingly mundane discoveries, such as walls, have provided some of the most telling information. Combined with studies of sediments, the walls reveal that the city apparently consisted of different districts, separated by waterways. One massive temple sat along the banks of a massive waterway that archaeologists have dubbed “The Grand Canal.” The Grand Canal connected a port/harbour to a large natural lake, sort of like modern-day Seattle.
Within the canal and the ports, shipwrecks and maritime artifacts have been discovered.
Source: The Lost City of Heracleion | JSTOR Daily

The Mystery of the ‘Odyssey’.

homer-book-670x440-140507
A kind of literary whodunit was solved recently when mysterious handwritten notations from a rare, 1504 edition of Homer’s Odyssey were identified.
The epic poem was part of a collection donated to the University of Chicago Library in 2007 by a collector, and ever since the unknown notations have told the library little besides their probable dating to the 1850s.
What better way to solve a mystery than to incentivize the correct solution with a thousand bucks? That’s just what the collector, M.C. Lang, did.
The deal was simple: Identify the script in the margins, prove the assertion, translate some of it, and then the fun part: pocket $1,000.
Italian digital humanities student Daniele Metilli took the prize when he and a co-sleuth with a background in stenography and the French language, Giula Accetta, cracked the case.
Because there were French words mixed in with the mystery handwriting, and the legible date of April 25, 1854 was present, the duo investigated French stenographic systems that were in use during that time.
After judging a few of those systems “not guilty,” Metilli and Accetta hit paydirt: The guilty party was Jean Coulon de Thévénot, creator in the late 1700s of the shorthand notation system scrawled amid the Greek text of the 1504 Homer.
The decoded notes were French translations of some of the Greek wording in the classic tome.
READ ON via Margin Mystery Solved in Rare Edition of Odyssey : Discovery News.

Boudicca the Warrior Queen of the Iceni, England.

Boudicca was queen of the Iceni people of Eastern England and led a major uprising against occupying Roman forces.
Boudicca was married to Prasutagus, ruler of the Iceni people of East Anglia.
When the Romans conquered southern England in AD 43, they allowed Prasutagus to continue to rule.
However, when Prasutagus died the Romans decided to rule the Iceni directly and confiscated the property of the leading tribesmen.
They are also said to have stripped and flogged Boudicca and raped her daughters. These actions exacerbated widespread resentment at Roman rule.
In 60 or 61 AD, while the Roman governor Gaius Suetonius Paullinus was leading a campaign in North Wales, the Iceni rebelled. Members of other tribes joined them.
Boudicca’s warriors successfully defeated the Roman Ninth Legion and destroyed the capital of Roman Britain, then at Colchester.
They went on to destroy London and Verulamium (St Albans). Thousands were killed.
Finally, Boudicca was defeated by a Roman army led by Paulinus.
Many Britons were killed and Boudicca is thought to have poisoned herself to avoid capture.
The site of the battle, and of Boudicca’s death, are unknown.
via BBC History

Discovering the Ancient Great Rhino, 1910-1911.

paraceratherium-skull-990x701by Brian Switek
Standing 16 feet tall at the shoulder and weighing 20 tons, Paraceratherium was one of the largest mammals to ever walk the Earth.
That may seem pretty puny by dinosaurian standards, but, at the American Museum of Natural History and other institutions that house reconstructions of the 34-23 million year old animal, the hornless rhino towers over every other beast. Only a few extinct elephants have come close to its impressive stature.
As is often the case with the large and fossiliferous, though, it’s too easy to get wrapped up in the nature of the beast and forget the history that assembled the creature before us. University of Manchester historian Chris Manias recounts the tale in a new paper.
In the case of Paraceratherium, the great rhino only emerged after years of toil, study, and, most importantly, collaboration between researchers who were independently drawn to the remains of the same giant.
Before the rhino could get a name or start casting shade over museum halls, the titan had to be discovered.
The British paleontologist Clive Forster-Cooper had the honor.
Curious about fossils regularly found by England’s Indian Geological Survey among the Bugti Hills of Baluchistan, Foster-Cooper organized a 1910-1911 expedition to see the fossils for himself.
The work was more difficult than Forster-Cooper had hoped. In the age of imperial paleontology, he took the traditional route of hiring unskilled local workers who he frequently groused about to his esteemed colleagues elsewhere.
Not only were the local Nawab people suspicious of the paleontologist’s true motives – who would be travel all the way out there for old bones? – but Forster-Cooper complained that he had to fire three workers for “idleness and insubordination” and did not trust the remaining three with anything more than rudimentary digging around.
Read on via How Paleontologists Uncovered the World’s Biggest Rhino – Phenomena: Laelaps.

Why Ancient Egyptians Loved Cats.

via Wikimedia Commons
by: James MacDonald
At the ancient site of Saqqara, just outside Cairo, a 4,500-year-old tomb has yielded an unexpected bounty: dozens of mummified cats and cat statues.
The ancient Egyptians’ affinity for animals is well documented. Archaeologists have discovered pampered pet dogs and even private zoos.
Cats, however, occupied a special space in Ancient Egypt.
According to James Allen Baldwin, cats are present in Egypt’s archaeological record as far back as the predynastic period, almost 5,000 years ago.
Cats likely became so entwined with Egyptian life for practical reasons: Agriculture attracted rodents, which attracted wild cats.
Humans learned to protect and value the creatures that kept their fields and granaries rodent-free.
Cats’ fondness for napping in the sun led to early associations between the cat and the sun god, Ra. There is abundant archaeological evidence, however, of cats serving multiple roles.
Cats were depicted protecting households against rodents and venomous snakes, but also as helpers for bird hunters and as pampered pets.
Cats have been found buried in human graves, although the exact relationship between cat and human isn’t always clear.
Some cats were buried with offerings, indicating that someone was planning for the animals’ afterlives.
The recent discovery is one of the oldest examples to date of a cat burial.
Starting around 1000 B.C.E., gigantic cemeteries full of tens of thousands of cats became fairly widespread.
The cats were elaborately wrapped and decorated, possibly by temple attendants.
Roman travelers to Egypt described how regular Egyptians revered cats, sometimes travelling long distances to bury a deceased cat in a cemetery.
Killing a cat may have even been a capital offense.
Source: Why Ancient Egyptians Loved Cats So Much | JSTOR Daily