Photo: Eric Vanderduys/Stop Adani [CC BY 2.0]/Flickr.
The black-throated finch has been voted “bird of the year.”
In Australia for 2019, helping draw attention to the species’ decline as human activities increasingly threaten its habitat. The finch’s victory was reportedly driven by support from conservationists, who connected its plight to deforestation and bushfires in Australia, as well as opposition to the Adani coal mine.
The finch won the online vote in a landslide, The Guardian reports, noting it received 11,153 votes in the final round of 10 birds, or about 35% of the total. That put it 7,802 votes ahead of the tawny frogmouth, which came in second. Third place went to the superb fairy-wren (2,875 votes), followed by the magpie in fourth (2,725) and the laughing kookaburra in fifth (2,650).
Black-throated finches once inhabited dry, grassy woodlands throughout northeastern Australia, gathering in small flocks to forage for seeds and insects. They experienced steep declines in the 20th century.
Illustration of human viscera by Paulo Mascagni, from his Anatomia Universa (1823-31) – Source: Wellcome Library, London.
Paolo Mascagni (January 25, 1755 – October 19, 1815) was an Italian physician and anatomist. He is most well known for publishing the first complete description of the lymphatic system.
Mascagni was born in the comune of Pomarance (in the Province of Pisa) to Aurelio Mascagni and Elisabetta Burroni, both belonging to old gentry families of Chiusdino.
He studied philosophy and medicine at the University of Siena. Upon graduating in 1777, renowned anatomist Pietro Tabarrini took Mascagni as an assistant. Upon Tabarrini’s death in 1780, Mascagni was appointed as an anatomy lecturer at the University of Siena.
As a young man, Mascagni was interested in geological sciences, as evidenced by his several papers on the Lagoni (thermal springs) of Siena and Volterra. Upon graduation, he turned his interest to the human lymphatic system. His many discoveries in this field led to the composition and publication of Vasorum lymphaticorum corporis humani historia et iconographia in 1787.
He was elected a corresponding member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1796, and president of the Accademia dei Fisiocritici in 1798.
During the French occupation of Tuscany in the spring of 1799, Mascagni showed himself to be an enthusiastic Jacobin.
For this reason, he spent seven months in prison after the French were expelled. Mascagni was freed from prison by a motu proprio of the King of Etruria, who on October 22, 1801 appointed Mascagni a professor of anatomy at the University of Pisa, with the additional charge of lecturing twice a week at the Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova in Florence.
In 1807, Mascagni was appointed professor of anatomy at the University of Florence. There, he wrote Treatise of Anatomy.
Mascagni died of sepsis in 1815. Via. Wikipedia
Do you remember when hordes of large, brightly coloured scarab beetles used to descend on Aussie summertime gatherings like mobile festive decorations?
by John Pickrell
Image credit: Stuart_Cox/Shutterstock
Christmas beetles were said to be so numerous 100 years ago in the Sydney region that they could be found floating in the harbour in huge numbers at this time of year.
These iridescent insects were known to swarm in such quantities that the boughs of eucalypt trees would regularly bend under their weight.
Once common in summertime – particularly at night around streetlights or as visitors at barbecues in eastern Australia – these large and often colourful scarab beetles comprise 36 different species, nearly all of which are endemic to Australia. They’re all in the genus Anoplognathus, with the common names of some species including king, queen, and campfire beetle, washerwoman and furry tailed prince.
But you may have noticed that they are less common than they used to be, with these metallic pink, brown, green and gold insects likely to be experiencing similar declines in numbers that are blighting other insects worldwide, particularly in urban areas. According to Australian Museum experts, the evidence for declines in New South Wales is anecdotal but compelling.
Perhaps unsurprisingly, increasing human population numbers and habitat loss are implicated as the most likely causes for declines.
Sydney’s human population grew from just over 4 million in 2011 to more than 5 million in 2018.
Meanwhile, Cumberland Plain woodland in Western Sydney – once rich with eucalypts that adult Christmas beetles feed on – now covers less than 10 per cent of its original area.
Climate change is likely to be another factor in declines, experts say. Christmas beetle larvae usually pupate into adults from about November or December and the adult stage only lives for a few weeks, during which time they must mate and lay eggs. Unusually dry spring weather can delay development of pupae into adults until the following year, which can mean fewer beetles around in a given year.
Insect populations have been declining worldwide, with some studies suggesting the problem is significant.
While some think of Christmas beetles – named for their yuletide arrival and festive bauble-like appearance – as pests, many will cast their minds nostalgically back to their youth and lament this pretty little creature’s decline.
This is perhaps the only formal war where one of the belligerents was not human, but rather avian.
In 1932, the emu population in Australia was growing out of control, with an estimated 20,000 emus running around the Australian desert and causing havoc among crops.
In response, the Australian military sent out a task force of soldiers armed with machine guns to kill the emus and even jokingly declared war on them.
In mid-November they drove out into the desert and proceeded to hunt down any emus they could find.
However, they ran into complications; the emus proved remarkably resilient, even when struck by multiple machine gun bullets they continued to run away, easily outstripping the heavily laden soldiers.
The Emu War lasted for nearly a week before Major Meredith, the commander of the emu-killing task-force gave up in disgust after the soldiers only bagged a fraction of the elusive birds.
War duration: (November 11-18 1932) Seven days.
Casualties: 2,500 emus.