It was a time of great upheaval in Australia, when the ordinary people said “enough is enough”, and went out into the streets to protest.
The conflict in Vietnam was going poorly because the American and Australian Governments had so badly underestimated the strength and purpose of the North Vietnamese people.
The Vietnam Moratorium held in Melbourne on 5 May, 1970, was huge with veteran Labor Politician Jim Cairns taking centre stage in a stinging rebuff to the Coalition Government for its blind support of the American Government’s policies in South Vietnam.
Leading the Moratorium March Jim Cairns and Tom Uren (Front Row: fourth and third in from the right).
American comic book writer, editor, publisher and former President of Marvel Comics Stan Lee died Monday at the age of 95.
Lee gave us over six decades of work like The Incredible Hulk and The Amazing Spider-Man — superheroes we could identify with, characters that allowed us to suspend our disbelief because they reacted to bizarre situations like you or I might.
In a 1998 interview, Lee said, “Before Marvel started, any superhero might be walking down the street and see a 12-foot-tall monster coming toward him with purple skin and eight arms breathing fire, and the character would have said something like, ‘Oh! There’s a monster from another world; I better catch him before he destroys the city.’
Robert Scott, owner of Comickaze, a San Diego comic-book store, says Lee put the human in superhuman.”He would talk about prejudice, racism,” Scott says. “I mean the X-Men, here was a group of people who were only trying to do good things and only trying to help and they were constantly ostracized by being mutants”. “For Lee, having compelling, thought-provoking subject matter was crucial to his business.”
AMSCOL, the Adelaide Milk Supply Co Operative Limited. Remember the factory in Carrington Street in the city? Amscol was set up by Adelaide’s dairy farmers in the 1920s to process daily milk supplies. And of course Amscol made other treats, too, like the ice cream brick, Amscol Dandies, Twin Chocs, Berry Bars and Hi Tops.
The Chinese King Tang of Shang is thought to have had over ninety “ice men” who mixed flour, camphor, and buffalo milk with ice. They had pots they filled with a syrupy mixture, which they then packed into a mixture of snow and salt.
Emperor Nero Claudius Caesar of Rome was said to have sent people up to the mountains to collect snow and ice which would then be flavoured with juice and fruit—kind of like a first century snow cone.
One of the earliest forerunners of modern ice cream was a recipe brought back to Italy from China by Marco Polo.
The recipe was very like what we would call sherbet. From there, it is thought that Catherine de Medici brought the dessert to France when she married King Henry II in 1533. I
n the 1600s, King Charles I of England was said to have enjoyed “cream ice” so much that he paid his chef to keep the recipe a secret from the public, believing it to be solely a royal treat.
However, these two stories appeared for the first time in the 19th century, many years after they were said to have taken place, so may or may not be true.
One of the first places to serve ice cream to the general public in Europe was Café Procope in France, which started serving it in the late 17th century.
The first mention of ice cream in America appeared in 1744, when a Scottish colonist visited the house of Maryland Governor Thomas Bladen wrote about the delicious strawberry ice cream he had while dining there.
The first advertisement for ice cream in America appeared in 1777 in the New York Gazette, in which Philip Lenzi said ice cream was “available almost every day” at his shop.
However, the “origin” story that his wife Martha once left sweet cream on the back porch one evening and returned in the morning to find ice cream is definitely not true.
Thomas Jefferson created his own recipe for vanilla ice cream, and President Madison’s wife served strawberry ice cream at her husband’s second inaugural banquet.
Ice cream at this time was made using the “pot freezer” method, which involved placing a bowl of cream in a bucket of ice and salt (note: not mixing the ice and salt with the cream as many believe).
The St. Louis World Fair popularized the ice cream cone. World War II further popularized the dessert as the treat was great for troop morale and became somewhat of a symbol of America at the time (so much so that Italy’s Mussolini banned ice cream to avoid the association).
This war time ice cream resulted in the biggest producer of ice cream in America in 1943 being the United States Armed Forces.
Photo: Sculptor Carl Valerius touching his statue of WW1 war horse Bill the Bastard.
Sculptor Carl Valerius enlisted the help of a vet to build a skeleton for Bill’s statue to ensure accuracy.
The little-known story of Australia’s greatest war horse will be enshrined in the Anzac legend with a life-size bronze statue.Bill the Bastard is widely considered Australia’s finest equine export of World War I.
Photo: Major Shanahan and Bill the Bastard get much needed rest under a date palm. Supplied: Terry Shanahan
Serving in the Middle Eastern theatre of the conflict, the 17-hand-high stallion was notorious for his unrelenting stubbornness, endurance and courage.Bill became a legend at the Battle of Romani, where he and Major Michael Shanahan rescued four Tasmanian troops from certain death on the battlefield.
Sculptor Carl Valerius is honouring Bill and Major Shanahan’s legacy with a true-to-scale statue depicting their rescue effort during the battle, in which Major Shanahan lost his left leg.
Mr Valerius said the statue would help to educate Australians about a widely overlooked part of Anzac history.
Soldiers stand to attention at the Remembrance Day ceremony in Melbourne, November 11, 2015.
Using silence to remember war is now an ingrained tradition, but few know its origins are Australian.
Across the road from the Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne, a humble plaque set in a constellation of rocks reads: In memory of Edward George Honey who died in 1922, a Melbourne journalist who while living in London first suggested the solemn ceremony of silence.
Honey, who served during World War I, was the first to publicly suggest silence as a vessel to hold the sorrow and loss of war — and even thoughts of triumph.
The idea came to him after November 11, 1918 — when news of the Allies’ victory sparked rowdy euphoria in the streets of London. Rather than celebrating, Honey’s thoughts turned to the colossal cost of the Great War.
“The world [had] been torn to pieces and he [was] clutching for a new vocab of remembrance,” says historian Bruce Scates from the Australian National University.
Close-up photo of Edward Honey plaque in Melbourne.
Edward Honey isn’t a household name — but his legacy lives on in memorial ceremonies today.
Photograph by Miyuki Jokiranta
Honey found a vocab more powerful than any words: silence.”Silence can mean something to everyone,”
Professor Bruce Scates says.”It’s an empty space you can fill with any thought you need to.”But most important for Honey, what it’s saying is we can share this silence, even if you haven’t lost someone immediately close to you“
The moment of silence filled a deep need in people to make sense of what had happened to them.
Harjit’s passion for breaking down prejudice led him to co-found the organisation Australian Sikh Heritage, which aims to promote the ties Australia has with Sikhs.
“One part of that rich shared heritage is with Anzacs and the Sikhs, and then a very important touch point in WWII being Manmohan Singh,” he says.
Sikh religion branched off from Hinduism around 500 years ago with the concept of the saint-soldier.
As well as a moral code the religion instructs followers to fight for truth and justice. Both world wars provided many Sikhs with a welcome opportunity to practice the soldier side of their beliefs.
“Sikhs are only two per cent of India’s population; however they contributed one-third of the million people that went from India as part of the volunteer army in WWI,” Harjit says.
Sikhs fought alongside the Anzacs at Gallipoli with the 14th Sikh Regiment suffering possibly the highest casualty rate of any force during the Gallipoli campaign, with only 4 survivors.
“379 Sikh officers died on the 4th of June in 1915; it virtually wiped out the 14th Sikh Regiment,” says Harjit.
These Sikhs were mostly from India, but research by Australian Sikh Heritage has also identified ten Sikhs from Australia who served as part of the Australian Imperial Force during WWI.
In WWII Australians and Sikhs found themselves fighting on the same side once again. While the Sikhs’ biggest role in this war was in Europe, they were also active closer to Australia.
But one of the great mysteries for Sikh military history has been traced back to Broome, in North Western Australia.
Manmohan Singh was the first Sikh to train to fly, and became well known before WWI when he participated in a competition to become the first person to fly from India to England.
As an accomplished pilot, Manmohan Singh was one of the first group of Indians to travel to England to join the Royal Air Force in 1939.
After hunting submarines in the Atlantic from a Sunderland flying boat, he was promoted to Flying Officer and given command of a Catalina flying boat in the Philippines.
But as the Japanese forces advanced south through Asia, Manmohan Singh was forced to withdraw south along with other allies. He eventually landed his Catalina on Roebuck Bay at Broome, which was thought by many to be out of range of Japanese planes.
Manmohan Singh was onboard his flying boat moored on Roebuck Bay on the morning of 3rd March, 1942.
Nine Japanese Zeroes fitted with detachable, long-distance fuel tanks strafed his plane along with 22 others that day. Manmohan Singh died during that action.