Iceland is the best place in the World to be Female.

‘At the end of 2017, Iceland got its second female prime minister, Katrin Jakobsdottir, a 41-year-old with three young sons.’
Image Credit: Photograph: Birgir Thor Hardarson/EPA
On 24 October 1975, the women of Iceland refused to show up for work. They refused to cook, clean or look after their children. Basically, they went on strike. And that day, the shops in Iceland ran out of the only convenience food available at the time: sausages.
Call it symbolism, but by going on strike the women of Iceland were calling for men to respect their work and demanding equal pay.
This week Iceland became the first country in the world to make companies prove they are not paying women less than men for the same work. Employers are rushing to comply with the new rules to avoid fines.
Companies and government agencies with more than 25 staff must obtain government certification of their equal pay policies.
On the ‘women’s day off’, as it’s known, 90% of women stopped work and refused to do any household chores
Iceland has long been deemed the best place in the world to be a woman.
For the past nine years, the country has topped the World Economic Forum’s gender equality index; the UK comes in at 15th.
In Iceland men get at least three months’ paternity leave, and 90% of them take it. This gives them time to become comfortable with child-rearing, encouraging them to share the workload with their partners.
Women in Iceland are highly educated, a high percentage hold managerial positions and they don’t give up their careers to have children: they do both. 
via Once more, Iceland has shown it is the best place in the world to be female | Sif Sigmarsdóttir | Opinion | The Guardian

Eddie Mabo, Indigenous Land Rights Advocate, 1936-1992.

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Edward (Eddie) Koiki Mabo, was born on Mer (Murray) Island in 1936.
He was exiled from the Island when he was 16, and worked across northern Queensland and the Torres Strait.
He then settled in Townsville with his young family in 1962.
Eddie established Australia’s first black community school in 1973.
In 1982 Eddie Mabo and four other Islanders initiated legal action, claiming customary ownership of their lands on Mer Island.
After being rejected in 1990, Eddie Mabo took the case to the High Court.
The High Court overturned terra nullius in Australia in 1992, but sadly Eddie Mabo died before the decision was handed down.
Following the desecration of Eddie Mabo’s grave in 1995, his body was re-interred on MerQueensland_State_Archives_2531_Murray_Island_court_house_and_people_1898
Murray Island Community 1898.
Read more via ‘Priceless’ Eddie Mabo self portrait held at AIATSIS – ABC News 

The Scandal of Kip Rhinelander’s marriage to Alice Jones, 1924.

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The love letters between Leonard Kip Rhinelander and Alice Jones were read to giggling spectators in the courtroom on Nov. 21, 1925. – Bettmann/CORBIS
The lack of interest in Kanye West’s and Kim’s race stands in sharp contrast to the 1924 marriage and separation of Leonard “Kip” Rhinelander, son of the New York glitterati, and Alice Jones, a blue-collar woman with at least one black grandparent.
Theirs became perhaps the most examined interracial relationship in our nation’s history when Kip sued Alice for annulment on the grounds that she’d hid her “Negro blood” and intentionally deceived him into believing she was white.
The newspapers of the day alternatively called Alice a quadroon and octoroon. Quadroon was once used to describe someone who’s one-fourth black. An octoroon was the offspring of a quadroon and a white person. (All this talk of quadroons and octoroons now feels more than a little offensive and silly.)
Contemporary accounts vary as to whether Alice had one or two black grandparents. No matter the ratio of the mix, much of American society and statute adhered to the race standard colloquially called the “.”
Color in Love
Kip, 18, and Alice, 22, met in 1921 and began a three-year courtship.
Despite Rhinelander’s powerful and wealthy New York family taking measures to end his relationship with Alice, the two rendezvoused, wrote hundreds of letters to one another, and then eloped in October 1924.
The next month, the marriage was made public when The Standard-Star published a headline story titled “Rhinelanders’ Son Marries the Daughter of a Colored Man.”
Kip’s father immediately demanded he file for an annulment, and court proceedings began shortly thereafter.
The suit endeavored to prove Alice duped the stuttering, socially awkward, younger Kip and used sex to swindle her way into riches and high society. It was the celebrity nature of the Rhinelander family and the exposé of intimate marital details that turned the proceedings into a national spectacle.
To prove it was impossible to mask her race, the color of Alice Jones Rhinelander’s nipples was examined by judge and jury as evidence of her blackness.
Kip testified that Alice told him her complexion was courtesy of Spanish ancestry.
His lawyer attempted to show that all the dimwitted Kip wanted from Alice was sex and that he initially had no intentions of marrying her.
To this end, hotel trysts were described in excruciating detail and sensual passages from Alice’s love letters read aloud to show she was loose and licentious.
Read more via When One Of New York’s Glitterati Married A ‘Quadroon’ : Code Switch : NPR.

Jack London, Writer and Photographer.

Jack London was a prolific photographer in addition to his writings and social activism, author of The Iron Heel he died in 1916 aged 40 years.
His writing and photography have been brought together in a new series by the publishers Contrasto, melding London’s literature and photography.
Jack London: The Paths Men Take, contains illustrated reports of key events in his career including his time spent in London, the South Pacific and at the time of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906.

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Jack London photographing the skeleton of the Snark, in which he sailed across the South Pacific. San Francisco Bay, 1906.

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Homeless women sleeping in Spitalfields Garden, London, 1902.

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The devastation caused by the San Francisco earthquake on Kearny Street, 1906.
All Photographs: Jack London, Courtesy of Contrasto.
See more images via Jack London documents his world – in pictures | Culture | The Guardian

The Daddy Long Legs of Brighton.

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The Brighton and Rottingdean Seashore Electric Railway was a unique coastline railway in Brighton, England that ran through the shallow waters of the English Channel between 1896 and 1901.
Magnus Volk, its owner, designer and engineer, had already been successful with the more conventional Volk’s Electric Railway, which had then not been extended east of Paston Place.
Facing unfavourable geography, Volk decided to construct a line through the surf from a pier at Paston Place to one at Rottingdean.
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The tracks were laid on concrete sleepers mortised into the bedrock, and the single car used on the railway, a huge pier-like building which stood on four 23 ft (7.0 m)-long legs, was propelled by electric motor.
It was officially named Pioneer, but many called it Daddy Long-Legs.
Construction took two years from 1894 to 1896. The railway officially opened 28 November 1896, but was nearly destroyed by a storm the night of 4 December.
Volk immediately set to rebuilding the railway including the Pioneer, which had been knocked on its side, and it reopened in July 1897.
In 1900 the council decided to build a beach protection barrier, which unfortunately required Volk to divert his line around the barrier.
Without funds to do so, Volk closed the railway. A model of the railway car is on display (along with a poster for the railway) in the foyer of the Brighton Toy and Model Museum. (Text from Wikipedia.)
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via The Daddy Long Legs of Brighton | The Public Domain Review.

Laszlo Biro & the Birth of the Ballpoint Pen.

Lazlo-BiroThe Hungarian Laszlo Biro (above), a magazine publisher, noticed, during a visit to a printer, how quickly the printer’s ink dried. It occurred to him that this fast-drying ink would work well in a fountain pen. This dense ink, however, would not flow through a pen.
Therefore, Biro decided to replace the metal writing nib of his pen with a slim ball bearing.
As the pen moved across the paper, the ball turned and suctioned ink from the reservoir, which then transferred it to the paper.
This principle of the ballpoint pen was not, however, a new one. It had been patented in the year 1888 by John J. Loud, but had not been used commercially.
Biro first patented his pen in the year 1938. In 1940 he and his brother ran away from Hungary to Argentina.

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There, on the 10 June 1943, he patented his pen again. A clerk of the British government, Henry Martin, who was, by chance, at that time in Argentina, was interested in the fact that Biro’s pen wrote at any altitude above sea level, and therefore because it was not affected by air pressure or other atmospheric conditions.
It immediately occurred to him to make it available to navigators in airplanes. The British government bought the patent and in 1944 a pen under the brand name Biro was produced for the Royal Air Force.
In 1950 Marcel Bich  who had acquired the rights to the pen began to sell his French pen and in 1953 he founded the BiC company (using an abbreviation of his name).
In subsequent years its subsidiaries, BIC Italy, BIC LAFREST Spain, BIC Brazil and CIRO Swan Ltd England, were founded.
By the end of the 1950s it controlled 70% of the European market and in 1960 it became the owner of the Waterman Pen Company in New York and it sold its pens on the North American markets for 29 to 69 cents per unit.
BiC completely controlled the market. Parker and other companies had to rest satisfied with a small market for fountain pens and more expensive models of ballpoints.
Today the modern version of Biro’s pen, under the brand name BiC Cristal, sells 20 million pens throughout the world every day.
via The Ballpoint Pen..

“Double Cheese Toasted Sandwich.”

Sweet-Hot-Mustard-Jarlsberg-Grilled-CheeseThe Islington Railway Workshops in Adelaide were certainly full of characters and none more than Brian Cahill a staunch Union man who could eat the leg off a chair.
During winter the Steel Car shop had a series of kerosene heaters that would roar away for most of the day and would attract cold workers to warm up their bodies like bees to a honey pot.
We never had a morning tea break in the 1960s and 1970s and would hide behind a welder’s humpy to stuff a sandwich down our throat and wash it down with a cup of tea secretly brewed from the billy .
Brian being the genius he was decided that he would toast his sandwiches on top of the heater and I can tell you he was pretty bloody good at it too. Cheese and tomato seemed top of his list but his double cheese was even better .
I guess most good things come to a end as poor old Brian found out.
Charlie Hill, the foremen of the shop must have sniffed the wind down in his nice warm office and came roaring down to check out where this lovely toasty smell was coming.
Charlie found Brian’s sandwich on top of the heater happily toasting away. Well, Charlie wasn’t a generous soul to start with and he decided to stand and watch poor Brian’s sanger (sandwich) burn to charcoal.
Meanwhile, Brian was hiding behind the welder’s humpy watching his beautiful creation turning to ashes.
Brian didn’t have a lot of love for Charlie before this tragic event and I can tell you the relationship got progressively worse as the years passed.
Comrade Jim.

Coronavirus information: What should I do?

What are the symptoms – and what should I do if I feel unwell?

Source: Coronavirus information: What should I do? – BBC News

Ghost Towns – Two Guns, Arizona.

The story behind Two Guns, originally called Canyon Lodge, is a sad one.
It all started in the 1920s, when the infamous Route 66 gained massive traffic from adventurous travellers. Many of these travellers stopped for supplies at Canyon Lodge, which was just a small trading post run by Earle and Louise Cundiff at the time.
The town’s success quickly caught the attention of the entrepreneur Harry “Two Guns” Miller, who recognized the the vast amounts of wealth to be gained there.
He convinced the Cundiffs to lease him the site for 10 years and renamed the town Two Guns.
Under Miller’s command, the town was transformed into a full-blown tourist trap, complete with its own zoo and attractions.
One of these so called “attractions” was a nearby canyon, which was the site of a battle between the Apaches and the Navajos. Inside the canyon was a cave called the Apache Death Cave, which served as a tomb for 42 Apache men.
Although the cave’s backstory is fascinating in its own right, Miller decided that it wasn’t intriguing enough for his tourists. He renamed it “Mystery Cave,” built fake ruins, sold the Apache skulls as souvenirs, and perhaps most egregiously, added a soda stand.
The town soon fell victim to a major robbery, which made relations between Miller and the Cundiffs very tense, culminating in a heated argument during which Miller shot Earle Cundiff dead.
Incredibly, Miller was acquitted at trial, but shortly thereafter, he was attacked twice by mountain lions and bitten by a Gila monster.
This trail of bad luck finally reached a tipping point in 1929, when a fire burned down the whole town.
After losing a court battle with Louise Cundiff to keep the land, Miller left. Route 66 was rerouted to the opposite canyon, and Two Guns slowly faded into obscurity, its golden days long behind it.
Source: Ghost Towns – Two Guns, Arizona – Strange Abandoned Places

Joseph Gayetty – Inventor of Toilet Paper.

The first mentions of toilet paper were found in the Chinese 5th century writings and during the 14th century.
They even started regular mass production of such paper in the amounts of over 10 million sheets in only one province.
Wealthy citizens and the royal family in Beijing even had access to the several types of soft, stylized and perfumed toilet paper.
In the others parts of the world, use of paper as a cleansing accessory was almost unheard of.
There are several reasons for that – inability to produce massive and affordable quantities, inefficient or nonexistent toilet plumbing network, and more.
After centuries of using water, rags, sticks, sand, leaves, corncobs, animal furs, finally American inventor Joseph Gayetty came to his invention – commercial toilet paper!
Gayetty was born in Massachusetts USA, and worked in New York where he came to the idea of toilet paper in 1857.
His product was marketed and intended to be used as a medical accessory, but it was later remembered as a commercial disaster (although this product remained in licensed use until the late 1920s).
It was sold in a package of 500 papers (scented and watermarked with the manufacturer’s name) and was advertised as a help for people who had troubles with haemorrhoids.
Following Gayetti’s commercial disaster, several other inventors tried to create successful products.
Most notably Englishman Walter Alcock created paper in a roll (again unsuccessfully), and in 1867 brothers Thomas, Edward and Clarence Scott managed to successfully market their toilet paper.
From that point on, use of toilet papers became widespread in the entire world.
Source: Joseph Gayetty – Inventor of Toilet Paper