Edward (Eddie) Koiki Mabo, was born on Mer (Murray) Island in 1936.
He was exiled from the Island when he was 16, and worked across northern Queensland and the Torres Strait.
He then settled in Townsville with his young family in 1962.
Eddie established Australia’s first black community school in 1973.
In 1982 Eddie Mabo and four other Islanders initiated legal action, claiming customary ownership of their lands on Mer Island.
After being rejected in 1990, Eddie Mabo took the case to the High Court.
The High Court overturned terra nullius in Australia in 1992, but sadly Eddie Mabo died before the decision was handed down.
Following the desecration of Eddie Mabo’s grave in 1995, his body was re-interred on Mer
Murray Island Community 1898.
The lack of interest in Kanye West’s and Kim’s race stands in sharp contrast to the 1924 marriage and separation of Leonard “Kip” Rhinelander, son of the New York glitterati, and Alice Jones, a blue-collar woman with at least one black grandparent.
Theirs became perhaps the most examined interracial relationship in our nation’s history when Kip sued Alice for annulment on the grounds that she’d hid her “Negro blood” and intentionally deceived him into believing she was white.
The newspapers of the day alternatively called Alice a quadroon and octoroon. Quadroon was once used to describe someone who’s one-fourth black. An octoroon was the offspring of a quadroon and a white person. (All this talk of quadroons and octoroons now feels more than a little offensive and silly.)
Contemporary accounts vary as to whether Alice had one or two black grandparents. No matter the ratio of the mix, much of American society and statute adhered to the race standard colloquially called the “.”
Color in Love
Kip, 18, and Alice, 22, met in 1921 and began a three-year courtship.
Despite Rhinelander’s powerful and wealthy New York family taking measures to end his relationship with Alice, the two rendezvoused, wrote hundreds of letters to one another, and then eloped in October 1924.
The next month, the marriage was made public when The Standard-Star published a headline story titled “Rhinelanders’ Son Marries the Daughter of a Colored Man.”
Kip’s father immediately demanded he file for an annulment, and court proceedings began shortly thereafter.
The suit endeavored to prove Alice duped the stuttering, socially awkward, younger Kip and used sex to swindle her way into riches and high society. It was the celebrity nature of the Rhinelander family and the exposé of intimate marital details that turned the proceedings into a national spectacle.
To prove it was impossible to mask her race, the color of Alice Jones Rhinelander’s nipples was examined by judge and jury as evidence of her blackness.
Kip testified that Alice told him her complexion was courtesy of Spanish ancestry.
His lawyer attempted to show that all the dimwitted Kip wanted from Alice was sex and that he initially had no intentions of marrying her.
To this end, hotel trysts were described in excruciating detail and sensual passages from Alice’s love letters read aloud to show she was loose and licentious.
Jack London was a prolific photographer in addition to his writings and social activism, author of The Iron Heel he died in 1916 aged 40 years.
His writing and photography have been brought together in a new series by the publishers Contrasto, melding London’s literature and photography.
Jack London: The Paths Men Take, contains illustrated reports of key events in his career including his time spent in London, the South Pacific and at the time of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906.
Jack London photographing the skeleton of the Snark, in which he sailed across the South Pacific. San Francisco Bay, 1906.
Homeless women sleeping in Spitalfields Garden, London, 1902.
The devastation caused by the San Francisco earthquake on Kearny Street, 1906.
All Photographs: Jack London, Courtesy of Contrasto.
See more images via Jack London documents his world – in pictures | Culture | The Guardian
The Brighton and Rottingdean Seashore Electric Railway was a unique coastline railway in Brighton, England that ran through the shallow waters of the English Channel between 1896 and 1901.
Magnus Volk, its owner, designer and engineer, had already been successful with the more conventional Volk’s Electric Railway, which had then not been extended east of Paston Place.
Facing unfavourable geography, Volk decided to construct a line through the surf from a pier at Paston Place to one at Rottingdean.
The tracks were laid on concrete sleepers mortised into the bedrock, and the single car used on the railway, a huge pier-like building which stood on four 23 ft (7.0 m)-long legs, was propelled by electric motor.
It was officially named Pioneer, but many called it Daddy Long-Legs.
Construction took two years from 1894 to 1896. The railway officially opened 28 November 1896, but was nearly destroyed by a storm the night of 4 December.
Volk immediately set to rebuilding the railway including the Pioneer, which had been knocked on its side, and it reopened in July 1897.
In 1900 the council decided to build a beach protection barrier, which unfortunately required Volk to divert his line around the barrier.
Without funds to do so, Volk closed the railway. A model of the railway car is on display (along with a poster for the railway) in the foyer of the Brighton Toy and Model Museum. (Text from Wikipedia.)
The Hungarian Laszlo Biro (above), a magazine publisher, noticed, during a visit to a printer, how quickly the printer’s ink dried. It occurred to him that this fast-drying ink would work well in a fountain pen. This dense ink, however, would not flow through a pen.
Therefore, Biro decided to replace the metal writing nib of his pen with a slim ball bearing.
As the pen moved across the paper, the ball turned and suctioned ink from the reservoir, which then transferred it to the paper.
This principle of the ballpoint pen was not, however, a new one. It had been patented in the year 1888 by John J. Loud, but had not been used commercially.
Biro first patented his pen in the year 1938. In 1940 he and his brother ran away from Hungary to Argentina.
There, on the 10 June 1943, he patented his pen again. A clerk of the British government, Henry Martin, who was, by chance, at that time in Argentina, was interested in the fact that Biro’s pen wrote at any altitude above sea level, and therefore because it was not affected by air pressure or other atmospheric conditions.
It immediately occurred to him to make it available to navigators in airplanes. The British government bought the patent and in 1944 a pen under the brand name Biro was produced for the Royal Air Force.
In 1950 Marcel Bich who had acquired the rights to the pen began to sell his French pen and in 1953 he founded the BiC company (using an abbreviation of his name).
In subsequent years its subsidiaries, BIC Italy, BIC LAFREST Spain, BIC Brazil and CIRO Swan Ltd England, were founded.
By the end of the 1950s it controlled 70% of the European market and in 1960 it became the owner of the Waterman Pen Company in New York and it sold its pens on the North American markets for 29 to 69 cents per unit.
BiC completely controlled the market. Parker and other companies had to rest satisfied with a small market for fountain pens and more expensive models of ballpoints.
Today the modern version of Biro’s pen, under the brand name BiC Cristal, sells 20 million pens throughout the world every day.
via The Ballpoint Pen..
The Islington Railway Workshops in Adelaide were certainly full of characters and none more than Brian Cahill a staunch Union man who could eat the leg off a chair.
During winter the Steel Car shop had a series of kerosene heaters that would roar away for most of the day and would attract cold workers to warm up their bodies like bees to a honey pot.
We never had a morning tea break in the 1960s and 1970s and would hide behind a welder’s humpy to stuff a sandwich down our throat and wash it down with a cup of tea secretly brewed from the billy .
Brian being the genius he was decided that he would toast his sandwiches on top of the heater and I can tell you he was pretty bloody good at it too. Cheese and tomato seemed top of his list but his double cheese was even better .
I guess most good things come to a end as poor old Brian found out.
Charlie Hill, the foremen of the shop must have sniffed the wind down in his nice warm office and came roaring down to check out where this lovely toasty smell was coming.
Charlie found Brian’s sandwich on top of the heater happily toasting away. Well, Charlie wasn’t a generous soul to start with and he decided to stand and watch poor Brian’s sanger (sandwich) burn to charcoal.
Meanwhile, Brian was hiding behind the welder’s humpy watching his beautiful creation turning to ashes.
Brian didn’t have a lot of love for Charlie before this tragic event and I can tell you the relationship got progressively worse as the years passed.
What are the symptoms – and what should I do if I feel unwell?