Large herbivores such as elephants often seek out natural mineral deposits such as rocks and soil to supplement their dietary intake of sodium whenever the mineral is not obtained in adequate quantities from woody plants and natural water which elephants consume.
So it is not uncommon to find elephants devouring soil and licking rocks high in sodium content.
In Mount Elgon National Park on the Kenya-Uganda border, elephants have taken this activity a step further—they have learned to quarry sodium-rich rocks on the base of a 24-million-years-old extinct volcano called Mount Elgon.
Mount Elgon is believed to be the oldest extinct volcano in East Africa.
Because of its unusually large form—an 80 kilometer wide base and a peak that rises 3,000 meters from the surrounding plains— Mount Elgon doesn’t have the typical sharp rise of a volcanic mountain.
The rise is more gradual, and as the land rises the vegetation changes and so does the climate. The forest becomes thicker and air becomes chilled.
Many rare plants and animals seek shelter in the higher slopes of Mount Elgon to escape the heat of the plains.
The elephants prefer to stay in the lower slopes where there are a number of caves and salt is plenty.
These caves are quite voluminous, with up to 150 meters long, 60 meters wide, and some 10 meters high.
There is evidence that these caves have been artificially expanded by thousands of years of mining—not by humans, but by the pachyderms.