“Alois Senefelder, the inventor of lithography, made for his own use pens from steel watch-springs.
In 1816, he sold his invention to J. Alexandre of Birmingham, who started the manufacture of steel pens.
At first they were a luxury but about 1830 they came into extensive universal use.” –Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, v. 6 (1917).
Here is an early advertisement for Alexandre’s firm.
Today, Birmingham is home to the Pen Museum:
Trade card for J. Alexander, ca. 1830. Graphic Arts Collection. Gift of W. Allen Scheuch II, Class of 1976.
Trade Card for Alexander’s Belgian broadside steel pen.