Revelers run with Torrestrella’s fighting bulls along the Calle Estafeta during the second day of the San Fermin Running Of The Bulls festival on July 7, 2014 in Pamplona, Spain. (Pablo Blazquez Dominguez/Getty Images)
The history of the bullrunning in Pamplona is not clear. There is evidence of the festival from as far back as the 13th century when it seems the events took place in October as this coincided with the festival of San Fermin on October 10th.
It seems that the modern day celebration has evolved from this as well as individual commercial and bullfighting fiestas which can be traced back to the 14th century.
Over many years the mainly religious festival of San Fermin was diluted by music, dancing, bullfights and markets such that the Pamplona Council proposed that the whole event be moved to July 7th when the weather is far more conducive to such a celebration.
To this day San Fermin remains a fixed date every year with the first bullrun at 8am on July 7th and the last at the same time on July 14.
The joining together of the religious, commercial and bullfighting festivals and the move to July 7th led to the first official celebration of San Fermines in 1591.
This inaugural fiesta was a low key affair in comparison to the modern day running of the bulls as it only lasted two days although there was much merriment involving music, a procession and a bullfight.
Looking Like something out of the mind of J.R.R. Tolkien, the city of Ronda, Spain is perched high atop the two cliff faces of the El Tajo canyon as though a fissure opened and swallowed the interior of the city.
The city of Ronda was first established in the time of Julius Caesar and has managed to survive through shifting geological conditions to this very day.
The Guadalevín River which runs down the very center of the city grounds has spent millennia slowly eroding the land and creating the deep canyon that now separates divides the historic urban center.
The walls of the canyon are sheer drops to the river over 100 meters below and the white, Spanish stone buildings are built to the very edge of the chasm.
Connecting the city are three bridges that span the expanse, the Roman Bridge, the Arab Bridge, and the New Bridge.
Each bridge is named to describe the regime that built it, save for the “New” bridge which was actually finished in 1793.
The bridges themselves are impressive feats of stonework with massive columns reaching down into the canyon and ornate roofs, giving the city the multicultural feel that its many ruling peoples brought with them.
In addition to the geological wonders the city brings,
A UNIVERSITY academic has brought the colourful world of Spanish graffiti art to North Staffordshire as part of his latest research.
Sociologist Andy Zieleniec spent 10 months studying the vibrant paintings which adorn walls, shop shutters and other public spaces.
He traveled to Barcelona, Valencia and Madrid for the project, talking to artists themselves and chronicling the different ways they turned streets into public art galleries.
Now Andy has launched an exhibition at Keele University, which shows around 120 photographs of the artwork he found on his travels.
The 50-year-old Keele lecturer said: “There are some stunning images. Graffiti artists see their work as a way of reclaiming a community or urban space from commerce. Most of the artists paint in their own neighbourhoods”.
“In Spain, there is a history of using the walls as message boards.”
Graffiti is often seen as a form of ‘tagging’ buildings, with artists sometimes even signing their names or using distinctive styles, just like Britain’s Banksy.
It can often cover political themes, ranging from anti-racism and sexual politics through to people protesting against Spain’s austerity measures.
But many images are just drawn for the enjoyment of the art itself.