“Our response to climate change bears on the future of our people and the wellbeing of mankind,” Chinese President Xi Jinping has said.
As the world’s biggest polluter, China faces an extraordinary challenge in reducing its emissions — one made all the more difficult because of the countless high-polluting factories scattered across the country.
Authorities have moved to shut down many of the worst-offending factories, but some factory owners simply pay informal “fines” to local authorities before re-opening.
Photojournalist Kevin Frayer traveled to Inner Mongolia with Getty Images earlier this month to capture some haunting pictures of life inside one steel mill.
The Diamond Sutra is an ancient Buddhist sermon that generations of Buddhists have memorized and chanted since at least the fifth century.
The sutra, which meditates on the illusory nature of the material world—the central theme of Buddhism, was originally written in Sanskrit in India, from which it was translated to Chinese in 401 AD. It is said that the teachings of The Diamond Sutra “cut like a diamond blade through worldly illusion to illuminate what is real and everlasting.”
A copy of this original translation, printed on an 18-feet-long, yellow-dyed scroll of paper, is housed at the British Library in London. The last few lines of the text, the colophon, identifies who printed it, when and why.
It reads: “Reverently made for universal free distribution by Wang Jie on behalf of his two parents, 11 May 868.
”The precise date makes this particular edition of Diamond Sutra the world’s oldest printed and dated book in existence.
The explicit public domain dedication is also the first in the history of creative work. The Diamond Sutra was printed using woodblock printing—a technique where the text to be printed is carefully carved as a relief pattern on a block of wood, and then stamped on paper or fabric after dipping the block in a pool of ink.
The scroll comprises of seven panels of paper, each of which was printed from a single block and stuck together to create a single scroll.
While individual sheets of woodblock-printed paper have been found dating to the early Tang Dynasty (7th century), the Diamond Sutra is the earliest complete book to be found intact.
The scroll was discovered by a monk inside a sealed-up cave at a site called “Caves of the Thousand Buddhas” near Dunhuang, in northwest China.
The dry desert air provided the perfect conditions for the preservation of the paper and the silk scrolls inside.
The yellow dye used on the scrolls comes from the Amur Cork Tree which has insecticidal properties. This contributed to the preservation of the scrolls.
Honey hunters Dong Haifa (top) and Mi Qiaoyun stand on a makeshift rope ladder, surrounded by bees as they work together gathering wild cliff honey on the cliffs of China’s Yunnan province, 11 May, 2019.