It’s hard to think of anything more reckless than adding a deadly carcinogen to a product that already causes cancer—and then bragging about the health benefits.
Yet that’s precisely what Lorillard Tobacco did 60 years ago when it introduced Kent cigarettes, whose patented “Micronite” filter contained a particularly virulent form of asbestos.
Smokers puffed their way through 13 billion Kents between March 1952 and May 1956, when Lorillard changed the filter design.
Six decades later, the legal fallout continues a Florida jury has awarded more than $3.5 million in damages to a former Kent smoker stricken with mesothelioma, an extremely rare and deadly asbestos-related cancer that typically shows up decades after the initial exposures.
Lorillard and Hollingsworth & Vose, the company that supplied the asbestos filter material, face numerous claims from mesothelioma sufferers, both factory workers who produced the cigarettes or filter material and former smokers who say they inhaled the microscopic fibers. (The companies insist that hardly any fibres escaped.)
“Micronite” one ad boasted, is “a pure, dust-free, completely harmless material that is so safe, so effective, it actually is used to help filter the air in operating rooms.”
Kent was Lorillard’s response to the health scare of the early 1950s, when the link between smoking and lung cancer began drawing wide attention. Tobacco companies scurried to roll out filters to calm jittery smokers and keep them from quitting in droves.
The health benefits would prove illusory, but the switch to filters averted the potential loss of millions of customers. “The industry’s own researchers admitted that filters did nothing to make cigarettes safer,” notes Robert Proctor, a Stanford University historian whose 2012 book, Golden Holocaust, covers Big Tobacco’s tactics in painstaking detail.
“Philip Morris scientists in 1963 admitted that ‘the illusion of filtration’ was as important as ‘the fact of filtration.”
Example of the World’s love affair with Asbestos, even in the 1880’s they knew of its harmful nature.
NAMPA — Chemistry professor Jerry Harris has a book in his office at Northwest Nazarene University called, “Asbestos: Silk of the Mineral Kingdom,” published in 1946.
He pulls it out when he needs a prime example of why his research on nanoparticles toxicity is important.
Asbestos is the infamous material that has cost billions of dollars to remove after it was used in millions of manufacturing projects throughout the 20th century.
But inhaling it for a long period of time has been shown to cause lung cancer and mesothelioma, among other sicknesses.
His project is one of six taking place at NNU under a $3.2 million, five-year grant from the IdeA Network of Biomedical Research Excellence Program, or INBRE — a grant that was just renewed at the beginning of this month.
Harris’ research centers on what can happen when a material is broken down into smaller and smaller particles, or nanoparticles.
As a substance is compressed, it can change shape and color, sometimes changing its biological factors.
“So as (researchers) are starting to look at these nanomaterials, they’re trying to avoid something like asbestos from happening again,” Harris said.
Asbestos victim Serafina Salucci has been living with mesothelioma for nine years. Photo: Elesa Kurtz
Serafina Salucci was just seven when she helped her dad build a garage in their Sydney backyard using the common building material of bonded asbestos sheeting.
But in 2007, at the age of 37, a persistent cough sent her to the doctors where a scan of her lung confirmed the deadly cancer mesothelioma.
Given her lack of exposure to any other form of asbestos, the most likely explanation is a tiny fibre entered her young lung during the backyard renovation, where it lay dormant for 30 years.
But Ms Salucci considers herself one of the lucky ones.
The average time between diagnosis of mesothelioma and death is just two years. She has survived nine. And she has watched her four children – the youngest was three when she was diagnosed – reach milestones she never thought possible.
With one lung removed, too many surgeries to list, and bouts of chemotherapy and radiation therapy behind her, Ms Salucci lives as full a life as she can between her six-monthly scans.
She went to Federal Parliament to plead for funding for the national effort against Australia’s asbestos legacy.
Ms Salucci was joined by asbestos advocates, legal and union representatives from across Australia – all of whom have banded together to call on the Turnbull Government to approve $3 million in funding for the Asbestos Safety and Eradication Agency.
Read on via Asbestos victim helps lobby for funding
Launched to produce and sell the cutting-edge Linotype machine, the Mergenthaler Linotype Company was selling nearly 700 machines each year by 1894.
The machine, which eliminated the need for manual typesetting, was purchased primarily by book companies and newspapers. By 1954, more than 100,000 asbestos-containing Linotypes had been sold.
Because the complex machine utilized metal parts and generated a great deal of heat, insulating the parts was a major focus of the machine’s makers.
Asbestos was often placed between these parts to reduce the risk of overheating and fire.
A paste made of ground asbestos and water was typically packed between the metal parts of the Linotype. The wet asbestos was often stuffed between the elevator jaws and the crucible heaters, as well as in empty spaces between other mechanical parts.
When pieces of the Linotype were removed or replaced, new asbestos was tapped into the empty spaces to freshen the insulation.
The Linotype also contained a hot pot filled with molten lead, which was jacketed with hardened asbestos cement to prevent the machine from catching fire.
Print workers were exposed to asbestos when they applied the jacketing or chipped away and replaced the cover. This asbestos was easily inhaled when the asbestos cement was broken, and workers may have been exposed to asbestos.
Workers who operated or maintained the Linotypes at printing facilities often came in contact with asbestos. One former worker at a company recalls skimming dross from the top of a molten metal furnace whilst wearing aprons and gloves made from Asbestos.